Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Ethnomusicology Multimedia Series Preface

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pp. ix-xviii

Each of the audio, video, or still image media examples listed herein is associated with specific passages in this book, and each example has been assigned a unique persistent uniform resource locator, or PURL. The PURL identifies a specific audio, video, or still image media example on the Ethnomusicology Multimedia website,...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xix-xxv

This book in its present form is significantly different from what it was twelve years ago, when I began working on it. While it is natural for any serious research to go through many stages before taking its final shape, for me, coming from Azerbaijan and writing a book for an American press, this process has entailed many additional...

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Note on Language and Transliteration

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pp. xxvii-xxix

Several important matters should be clarified for the reader. The first point concerns the original Azerbaijani names and titles that I have transliterated and translated into English. Some of them appear in Russian sources in a distorted way, having been rendered according to Russian pronunciation rules. This, subsequently, has created...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-27

January 2014: I am taking the subway across Baku, the capital city of Azerbaijan. As the train pulls into each stop along its route, a brief excerpt of music comes through the sound system. These excerpts are musical welcoming messages. Each of the city’s twenty-three subway stations has its own distinct snippet of music...

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1. Azerbaijani Musical Nationalism during the Pre-Soviet and Soviet Eras

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pp. 28-64

A great geopolitical transformation occurred in Transcaucasia between 1813 and 1828. As a result of the Russo-Persian wars, Russia annexed Persia’s (Iran’s) northern territories populated by ethnic Azerbaijanis. Subjugation to Russia profoundly altered the history of the Azerbaijani people. For centuries, all Azerbaijanis...

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2. Pioneers of the New Azerbaijani Musical Identity

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pp. 65-86

He has always been referred to as “Uzeyir bey.” In traditional Azerbaijani society, a bey placed beside a male’s first name signified a person of nobility. Hajibeyli, like all Azerbaijanis, had to Russify his family name under the Russian and then the Soviet empires. By substituting a Russian suffix...

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3. The Russian-Soviet Factor: Facilitating or Disrupting Synthesis?

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pp. 87-110

The role of Russia and Russian music has always been central to discussions of East-West synthesis in Azerbaijani music. Russian and Soviet sources proudly emphasize the positive impact of Russian music on the development of Western art music in Azerbaijan, whereas Western authors focus more on Russia’s distortive influence. Indeed, Russia...

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4. The Beginning of the National Style: 1900–the 1930s

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pp. 111-143

The Azerbaijani composed music tradition witnessed the same historical sequence of musical styles – baroque, classical, romantic, atonal, and so forth – as Western music did, although at an accelerated pace, and in the context of East-West synthesis. These Western musical styles’ emergence in Azerbaijan resembled stretta in polyphonic...

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5. Growing Maturity: 1940–the Early 1960s

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pp. 144-161

Neoclassicism was historically the first style in Azerbaijani music that demonstrated native composers’ growing synchronization with Western contemporary music. During the 1940s and 1950s, both German and French neoclassical models, associated with Hindemith and Stravinsky, respectively, entered the orbit of Azerbaijani...

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6. The Spirit of Experimentalism: Since the 1960s

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pp. 162-195

Gara Garayev’s Third Symphony (1964) and Violin Concerto (1967), both based on twelve-tone technique, marked the beginning of a new period in Azerbaijani music: the era of atonal composition. These works were recognized not only as the first manifestations of twelve-tone technique in Azerbaijani music, but also as among...

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7. Songwriters

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pp. 196-216

The song tradition of Azerbaijan, as that of nearly any culture, occupies a special place in the hierarchy of musical genres, addressing a wide audience and instantly reaching people’s hearts. In the twentieth century, the rich and versatile folk song tradition, with its multigenre spectrum encompassing lyrical, heroic, humorous, historical...

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8. Jazz Mugham

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pp. 217-235

Back in the 1990s, at the Baku Music Academy, I had a student in my Western music history class who often stayed after the lecture to pursue conversations on various music-related topics. Her name was Aziza. We talked about the role of spontaneous expression in Western classical music, as well as the amount of freedom appropriate...

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9. Leaving the Post-Soviet Era Behind

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pp. 236-254

The breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 remains among the most dramatic – and traumatic – historical events of the twentieth century. The agony of the dying regime lasted for several years, and it occurred amid political turmoil, economic collapse, and bloody ethnic and regional conflicts. Accordingly, at the end of the twentieth...

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10. "Mugham Opera" of the Silk Road

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pp. 255-269

This book opened with a discussion of Leyli and Majnun, the “mugham opera” created by Uzeyir Hajibeyli in 1908 that marked the beginning of the composed music tradition in Azerbaijan. Symbolically, the last chapter of this book is also about this opera, now reimagined in the twenty-first century, thousands of miles away from Azerbaijan...

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Epilogue

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pp. 270-272

I had just finished writing this book when the Aga Khan Music Initiative (AKMI) invited me to participate in the residency program of the Kronos Quartet and the Alim Gasimov Ensemble at the University of California at Berkeley and Stanford University in February 2012. My book would not be complete were I not, even briefly...

Glossary

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pp. 273-276

Notes

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pp. 277-292

Bibliography

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pp. 293-310

Index

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pp. 311-326

About the Author

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p. 327