Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Foreword

John C. Lechleiter

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pp. ix-xii

With his courage, creativity, and sheer capacity for work, George Henry Alexander Clowes drove the development of one of the twentieth century’s great lifesaving medicines: insulin, for the treatment of diabetes—brought to patients in 1923. Later Dr. Clowes also contributed decisively to, among other things, the development of liver extract to treat pernicious...

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Foreword

A. Ian Fraser

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pp. xiii-xiv

As first guide to, and ultimately research curator of, The Clowes Fund Collection of Old Master Paintings, I spent a considerable amount of time in the company of Edith Whitehill Clowes during the last decade of her life. Starting with our first encounter, in 1959, she proved to be both a valued mentor and a cherished friend. Without hesitation, she welcomed...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xviii

My greatest gratitude is to my grandparents, who served throughout my life as models of lives well lived. To relive their relationship, accomplishments, hopes, and challenges through their letters and diaries brought me unending pleasure and even courage as I faced my own challenge with mortality at the time I finished the manuscript. Many...

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Introduction: A Warm Embrace

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pp. 1-8

“Grandpa—are you okay?” I stood at the door and anxiously looked in at my grandfather lying quietly on his bed with his hands crossed on his stomach. The southwest breeze wafted the lace drapes, sunlight danced on the wavelets, channel gongs clanged softly in the distance. But the room was silent. His expression did not change. Nothing moved. No...

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1. Growing Up in Victorian England

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pp. 9-19

George Henry Alexander Clowes was born on August 27, 1877, to Josiah Pratt Clowes and Ellen Seppings. His mother gave birth to him in his grandmother Clowes’s house at 96 Anglesea Road, in the town of Ipswich, in southwestern Britain. The boy came to be known as Alec or Alick for short.
Alec’s parents raised him in nearby Needham Market...

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2. The Search for a Cure of Cancer

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pp. 20-30

Accompanied by Gaylord, Clowes crossed the Atlantic on the Fuerst Bismarck of the Hamburg-America Line and arrived in New York on July 20, 1900. Many hours later, when he stepped off the train in Buffalo, he marveled at the town he would call his own for the next nineteen years. Two weeks after his arrival, while staying with the Gaylords, he wrote...

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3. Edith Whitehill Hinkel

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pp. 31-45

Frank Whitehill Hinkel married Kate Allen Campbell and came to Buffalo in 1884 after completing medical school and a two-year residency in ear, nose, and throat surgery in Philadelphia. He was the son of James C. Whitehill, but his name was changed to Hinkel shortly after his birth when he was adopted by his aunt, Anna Mary Whitehill, and her...

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4. Alec and Edith

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pp. 46-53

How to proceed? Alec had hoped to marry Edith in September 1909 but soon realized that more income was needed. The “Bohemian life,” as he called it, could not continue. He could get by on the meager salary provided by the Gratwick Laboratory, but now that the state legislature had cut the appropriations, his pay would be reduced from $2,500 to...

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5. 1914: The End of an Era

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pp. 54-62

While Clowes was swatting mosquitos and distilling rum in Jamaica, his colleague Gaylord, back in Buffalo, was attempting to cure cancer by vaccination. He had treated a fourteen-year-old-boy with a sarcoma of the jaw by injecting him with preparations of transplantable rat sarcoma at intervals during the six-month period from May to November...

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6. In the Borderline Fields of Medicine

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pp. 63-70

Dr. Frank R. Eldred, chief of research at Eli Lilly and Company, contacted Clowes in October 1916 and invited him to Indianapolis to address the members of the local chemical society and in so doing encourage them to undertake research of a fundamental nature.1
Clowes accepted this invitation and delivered a lecture in December on...

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7. Lilly and the Insulin Story

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pp. 71-85

In a modest few sentences spoken while delivering the Banting Memorial Address in June 1947, Clowes described the very beginning of the project that established his career as the research director of Eli Lilly and Company:

In October, 1921, I heard rumors regarding the work being carried on in Dr. Macleod’s laboratory in Toronto. I got in touch with him and he advised me to hear the paper...

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8. From Small- to Large-Scale Production of Insulin

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pp. 86-105

The first step for the Lilly team comprising George Walden, Harley Rhodehamel, and Jasper P. Scott was to repeat the basic small-scale insulin experiments of Banting, Best, and Collip and then to begin to scale the program up to meet the clinical demand. Best and Collip came to Indianapolis to consult and to supervise the first experiments on June...

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9. Expansion of Research Programs

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pp. 106-113

The developmental research programs in Indianapolis were matched by separate and equally important programs in basic research conducted in Woods Hole during the summers at the Marine Biological Laboratory. The two programs depended to a certain extent on each other.
For example, the basic research group in Woods Hole provided an opportunity...

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10. Woods Hole, MBL, and the Pursuit of Cancer

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pp. 114-121

if you cock your right elbow and let your hand curl upward, the shadow of the arm falls neatly on the map of Cape Cod. Woods Hole, located at the tip of the elbow, has one of the few deep-water harbors between New York and Boston, and it is the jumping-off point for Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket, as well as the Elizabeth Islands, which stretch to the...

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11. The Duchess, the Doc, and the Boys

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pp. 122-139

The decision to leave Buffalo and to move to Indianapolis in the fall of 1919 was straightforward for Alec but difficult for Edith. Buffalo had been her home forever. Her children had been born there (Alexander in 1911, George in 1915, and Allen in 1917), and her widowed father and her friends lived nearby. Before Edith and Alec were married and when confronted...

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12. Alec and Edith: Indianapolis Benefactors

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pp. 140-153

A scientifically exciting and financially secure job in a sound organization was Alec’s first objective in 1919; Edith’s was a home in the Midwest, preferably in a town like Buffalo where she could raise her sons. The couple agreed that Eli Lilly and Company and Indianapolis were the best alternatives for Alec, for Edith, and for the family. By the end of their...

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13. A Legacy: In Others’ Eyes

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pp. 154-160

Who was George Henry Alexander Clowes? What did his colleagues and companions think of him? Although we can assemble a picture of the man from the thousands of letters he dictated, for he was indeed a prolific writer of letters, the best portraits come from those who worked and lived with him day by day: his secretary Lenora...

Appendix 1: Publications of George Henry Alexander Clowes

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pp. 161-172

Appendix 2: Chronology of Ancestry

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pp. 173-174

Notes

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pp. 175-186

Bibliography

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pp. 187-202

Index, About the Author

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pp. 203-211

Image Plates

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