Accounting for Culture
Thinking Through Cultural Citizenship
Publication Year: 2005
Published by: University of Ottawa Press
Series: Governance Series
Foreword: Accounting for Culture: Examining the Building Blocks of Cultural Citizenship
When the department was formed ten years ago, many wondered about the relationship between its two halves. Just what did culture have to do with citizenship? Why would anyone try to bring together the people who worked with artists and museums and broadcasters with the people who were concerned about official languages, multiculturalism, and...
The Canadian Cultural Research Network (CCRN) was pleased to present, in partnership with the Department of Canadian Heritage and the University of Ottawa, the colloquium to which the chapters published here contributed. Accounting for Culture: Examining the Building Blocks of Cultural Citizenship, held in Gatineau, Quebec, on November 13-15, 2003, marked the fifth anniversary of the CCHN and the tenth anniversary of Canadian...
Introduction: Accounting for Culture: Thinking Through Cultural Citizenship
This book, like the conference which gave life to it, represents a partnership between people interested in research on culture and people interested in cultural policy. But much more complex and interrelated than that, it brings together people interested in rethinking cultural policy in the light of understanding changes in culture, changes in relationships between citizens and governments, and changes in ways governments operate. Its objective...
Part I: The Evolution and Broadening of Cultural Policy Rationales
1. From Indicators to Governance to the Mainstream: Tools for Cultural Policy and Citizenship
We need to know more about "culture"—however we define it in local, regional, national, and global contexts—both quantitatively and qualitatively. We need to improve the quantitative baseline (cultural statistics) and the qualitative baseline (evidence on "social impacts," the relationship between culture and quality of life, social cohesion and inclusion, etc). We need more numbers, more facts, more indicators, more...
2. The Three Faces of Culture: Why Culture Is a Strategic Good Requiring Government Policy Attention
Canadian films represent only 2.1 per cent of the cinema market in Canada. Less than 15 per cent of magazines on Canadian newsstands are Canadian. Only 41 per cent of Canadian television shows are domestic, less for English television and less in prime time. The various levels of government in Canada (federal, provincial.and municipal) spend over 6 billion dollars (or two hundred dollars per capita) supporting and subsidizing...
3. Cultural Participation: A Fuzzy Cultural Policy Paradigm
Google the term "cultural participation" and a researcher is likely to find 5.4 million hits. Something that generates this amount of activity on the Web is likely to generate heat, but not light. Is cultural participation a basic building block of cultural citizenship, or a way to measure it?1 This chapter will argue that it should be a basic building block, suggesting that the term is better thought of as a means but not an end of citizenship...
Part II: Voices
4. The Chameleon-like Complexion of Cultural Policy: Re-educating an Octogenarian
Research in the cultural sector sometimes invites a cross-over mode of scholarship: it must be methodologically and theoretically rigorous while at the same time it benefits from an understanding of, and perhaps even empathy for, culture. Its "science," in other words, ought also to reflect the aesthetic world of the arts. Accordingly, this chapter adopts a format not normally associated with the dry mode of scholarly reports. It seeks...
5. Reframing the Case for Culture
Allow me to start with a confession. I am neither an expert on public policy or culture. Rather, it has been my lifelong interest in politics and the arts—and particularly music— that has caused me to explore alternatives to existing cultural policy and a different way to frame the case for culture. More specifically still, it was a growing concern that both politics and the arts are imperiled in today's environment that gave me...
6. Artists' Behaviour in the First Decade
Someone asked me what I thought of the idea of cultural citizenship.1 The first thing I thought of was whether or not I belonged to a specific culture. I guess I could claim my birthright. If I were born and raised in a specific locale, I would have the right to participate culturally without inhibition, and hopefully with some sophistication, in the culture I was born into. If I inhabited that locale for a sustained length of time, my...
Part III: New Approaches in a Changing Cultural Environment
7. The Changing Environments of Cultural Policy and Citizenship in Canada
Culture and citizenship in Canada are shaped and influenced by a broad range of contextual factors that are changing rapidly at home and around the world. While system change is nothing new, the scope and power of current changes are transforming the way we live, cultural and citizenship-related activities, and our capacity to identify, measure, evaluate, and understand their effects and implications. In this chapter, it is argued that both culture...
8. From "Culture" to "Knowledge": An Innovation Systems Approach to the Content Industries
Culture is very much the home patch of us content proselytizers—where many of us grew up intellectually and feel most comfortable. It has been around as a fundamental rationale for government's interest in regulation and subsidy for decades. The "cultural industries" was a term invented to embrace die commercial industry sectors—principally film, television, book publishing, and music—which also delivered fundamental, popular...
9. Just Showing Up: Social and Cultural Capital in Everyday Life
This chapter is intended to be a synthesis of current knowledge about social and cultural capital and their relationship to questions of citizenship. Its aims are to identify the role that these forms of capital play in the construction of cultural citizenship and to suggest how a conceptual understanding of them is useful to our understanding of the formulation of cultural policies. The chapter is structured as follows: Section...
10. The Elusiveness of Full Citizenship: Accounting for Cultural Capital, Cultural Competencies, and Cultural Pluralism
Most discussions about cultural capital seem to revolve around the consumption or use of cultural goods and services. This chapter attempts to address some aspects of a more fundamental role that cultural capital plays in society. Adopting an anthropological perspective on culture as a way of life, it seeks to widen Pierre Bourdieu's discussion of the social exclusion that results from a person's lack of certain aesthetic dispositions to...
11. Les pratiques culturelles en mutation
12. Pathways of Cultural Movement
In 1997, the Swedish ethnologist Orvar Lofgren invited scholars to study the ways in which cultural artefacts move through the spaces of national cultures.1 Research on culture, he argued, should direct its attention to "the ways in which national differences become embedded in the materialities of everyday life, found not only in the rhetoric of flag-waving and public rituals, but also in the national trajectories of...
Part IV: Governance, Indicators, and Engagement in the Cultural Sector
13. Creative Pique: On Governance and Engagement in the Cultural Sector
The study of governance has been defined as "the search for the means of ensuring effective coordination when resources, power and information are highly distributed, and when no single actor could possibly go it alone."1 Through the lens of governance, the state is not viewed as the central and utmost player in policy-making and program delivery, but rather as one of a number of players, including private and civic actors, who...
14. Governance of Culture: Words of Caution
There is a high degree of fuzziness surrounding the word "culture." The use of the word "cultural" is even more licentious. If one adds that the notion of governance is itself less than limpid, one is led to conclude that, of necessity, the very notion of "governance of culture" is bound to be somewhat opaque. Yet there are many reasons to believe that unless one is able to elicit what one means by culture and by governance, there is a great...
15. Vers des indicateurs culturels
16. Cultural Indicators and Benchmarks in Community Indicator Projects
Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest and activity around quality of life and sustainability indicator projects in communities across Canada and the United States. However, the inclusion of arts and cultural themes, issues, and indicators in the initial wave of quality of life and sustainability projects was rare.1 In more recent years, the presence of cultural indicators in these community indicator projects has...
Conclusion: Reflections on the Cultural and Political Implications of Cultural Citizenship
The introduction to this volume outlined the shifting rationales and contexts for public policy in the cultural realm. It did so, in part, by charting the dilemmas facing policy analysts as they grapple with questions of governance, accountability and the indicators on which policy rests. Our concern in this concluding chapter is with the more elusive (and hotly debated) ways in which the cultural realm itself has been transformed in...
Annex: Back to the Future: The Colloquium in Context: The Democratization of Culture and Cultural Democracy
E. M. Forster famously wrote that "unless we remember we cannot understand." There is a worrisome amnesia confronting the cultural sector in Canada today, as though the collective "hard drive" of the sector has been wiped clean of past policy and research experience. Many explanations for this state of affairs are possible. One is the hollowing out of governments' policy capacity after many years of spending cuts. Another is the...