Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xiv

In writing an academic history of cocaine, I have suffered a lot of gentle teasing over the years from friends and colleagues. Cocaine is admittedly interesting stuff, and not just to the millions of people whose lives the drug has touched for better or for worse since the 1970s. But what began for me as a kind of follow-up “commodity study”— my previous monographs dealt with nineteenth...

Chronology: Cocaine, 1850–2000

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pp. xv-xvii

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Introduction: Cocaine as Andean History

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pp. 1-12

Pharmacist Alfredo Bignon was burning the midnight oil in the backroom laboratory of his Droguería y Botica Francesa, just around the corner from Lima’s main Plaza de Armas. Once more, he went over in his head his hardwon new formula for making cocaine. Tomorrow, the thirteenth of March 1885, he would present his findings at the Academia Libre de Medicina de Lima, where a distinguished...

I: COCAINE RISING

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CHAPTER 1 Imagining Coca, Discovering Cocaine, 1850–1890

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pp. 15-54

It was Karl Marx, in a foundational nineteenth-century text on commodities composed about the same time his compatriots were celebrating a new “miracle drug,” cocain, who first stressed the mental life of things, that is, how market relationships are first constructed as a process within the human mind, enveloping ordinary...

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CHAPTER 2 Making a National Commodity: Peruvian Crude Cocaine, 1885–1910

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pp. 55-102

In the two decades after 1860, Peruvian pharmacists, medical authorities, promoters, and statesmen began recasting the possibilities of ancient Andean coca leaf and experimenting with its newfound derivative, cocaine. Between 1886 and 1900, a small group of national entrepreneurs, along with localized foreign capitalists, were able to transform these ideas, using local know-how and resources...

II: COCAINE FALLING

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CHAPTER 3 Cocaine Enchained: Global Commodity Circuits, 1890s–1930s

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pp. 105-142

This chapter serves as a kind of bridge — or analytical interregnum — between cocaine’s nineteenth-century formation as a global commodity and its commercial decline and eventual demise as a licit commodity during the first half of the twentieth century. Instead of building from archival detail, as in most of the book, in this chapter I adopt a more synthetic and explicit political...

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CHAPTER 4 Withering Cocaine: Peruvian Responses, 1910–1945

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pp. 143-188

The last chapter sketched the global commodity networks of cocaine that had coalesced by 1920 and whose tensions and competition ended for coca’s homeland the buoyant era during which Peruvians had built the export commodity cocaine and dominated its world supply. After 1910, legal Peruvian cocaine tumbled into a deep economic crisis from which it would never rebound....

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CHAPTER 5 Anticocaine: From Reluctance to Global Prohibitions, 1910–1950

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pp. 189-242

In this chapter, I trace the global anticocaine movement born in the early twentieth century, which culminated at mid-century in a full-blown global prohibition around cocaine — a regime restricting producing regions in the Andes as well as production, medical usage, and illicit use in consuming sites such as the United States. The rise of twentieth-century narcotics control is the subject of a vast literature not only because this system’s paradoxical legacies...

III: ILLICIT COCAINE

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CHAPTER 6 Birth of the Narcos: Pan-American Illicit Networks, 1945–1965

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pp. 245-290

Between 1947 and 1964, a wholly new class of international cocaine traffickers swiftly arose, formed by little-known Peruvians, Bolivians, Cubans, Chileans, Mexicans, Brazilians, and Argentines. These men — and often daring young women — while pursued by overseas drug agents, pioneered the business of illicit cocaine, a drug whose small-scale production in eastern Peru had remained...

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CHAPTER 7 The Drug Boom (1965–1975) and Beyond

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pp. 291-324

Reflecting on cocaine’s long journey over time, from its heroic commercial and nationalist origins in the nineteenth century through its contested decline as a legal commodity during the first half of the twentieth century to its politics-driven shift underground after World War II, here I focus on three changes that would unleash the drug’s illicit boom by the 1960s and 1970s. These were, first, the collapse of postwar development schemes for Peru’s Huallaga Valley...

APPENDIX: Quantifying Cocaine

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pp. 325-336

Notes

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pp. 337-376

Bibliographic Essay: A Guide to the Historiography of Cocaine

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pp. 377-384

Bibliography

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pp. 385-412

Index

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pp. 413-442