Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. vii

ILLUSTRATIONS

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. xi

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xiii-xiv

Setsuko Ono read this manuscript with insight and care. She was a tough but gracious critic who could always find the right words. Her comments, ever so insightful, ever so intelligent, stimulated me throughout my journey. Her literary flair, her talent and her sensitivity are clearly evident in her own book— chronicling her professional experience in international development—which will soon appear in Japan and...

Note on Citations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xv-xvi

Abbreviations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xvii-xix

read more

Prologue

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 5-11

In 1945 virtually all Africa was divided among the Europeans: France and England had the largest shares; tiny Belgium ruled the immense colony of Zaire;a Portugal was master of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and several small islands; Spain held a few fragments; and the fate of the former Italian colonies had yet to be decided. The continent was a backwater, a safe backyard of the Western powers. There was...

read more

1 Castro’s Cuba, 1959–1964

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 12-29

The United States did not hesitate to recognize the government established by Fidel Castro. On January 7, 1959, just six days after Fulgencio Batista had fled Cuba, the Eisenhower administration extended the hand of friendship to the victorious guerrillas. To signal its goodwill, the State Department replaced the ambassador to Cuba, Earl Smith, a wealthy political appointee who had been close to Batista, with Philip Bonsal, a career diplomat known...

read more

2 Cuba’s First Venture in Africa: Algeria

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 30-56

When Castro came to power in January 1959, Cuba had only one diplomatic link with Africa: a legation in Cairo. Guevara’s trip to Egypt that June was the first visit by a high-ranking Cuban official to the continent. Raúl Castro followed in July 1960. Two months later, Fidel Castro delivered a speech at the United Nations dealing forcefully with African issues. Cordial relations were established with Egypt, Ghana, and Guinea. In October 1961...

read more

3 Flee! The White Giants Are Coming!

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 57-76

The anxiety U.S. officials felt about Cuba’s ties with Algeria was slight compared with their sudden panic when Zanzibar exploded. This tiny island state of 300,000 people off the coast of Tanganyika had been a sleepy British protectorate until becoming independent on December 10, 1963. One month later, on January 12, 1964, an unexpected and bloody revolt...

read more

4 Castro Turns to Central Africa

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 77-100

The Cuban press followed the crisis in Zaire closely, and Cuban leaders drew bitter lessons from Lumumba’s fate. Nevertheless, until 1964 Cuba was merely a concerned spectator. ‘‘Lumumba,’’ Che Guevara said, ‘‘was murdered by the imperialists, but he was also the victim of his own mistakes.’’ He had trusted international law, the United Nations, and even the...

read more

5 Che in Zaire

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 101-123

Toward the end of March, when the training of the First Column was almost completed, a senior DGI officer, Luis Delgado, visited Dreke at Peti- with several photographs of a man called Ramón. ‘‘He asked me whether I recognized him,’’ Dreke recalled. ‘‘I said I didn’t. Delgado insisted: ‘Look, he says he knows you, that you are friends.’ ’’ Dreke was categorical: ‘‘I don’t know...

read more

6 A Successful Covert Operation

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 124-136

The mercenaries’ offensive against the Fizi-Baraka was the final act of one of the most successful covert operations undertaken by the United States during the Cold War. By deftly managing public opinion at home and foreign governments abroad, Washington kept the costs of the operation risibly low while the benefit seemed large: a pro- American regime ensconced in...

read more

7 American Victory

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 137-159

Less than a week after Ambassador Godley reported that there were over 100 Cubans in the Fizi-Baraka, the offensive against the rebel pocket began. About 3,000 soldiers, spearheaded by 350 mercenaries, were supported by the CIA flotilla and by the CIA air force. ‘‘We expect the campaign to take about a month, but we still don’t know how tough it will be,’’ the NSC point man on Africa, Robert Komer, told President Johnson on September 27, as he...

read more

8 Cubans in the Congo

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 160-184

Brazzaville, the capital of the Congo, had been one of Che’s most important stops during his three-month trip to Africa in early 1965. While there, he had promised a troop of Cuban soldiers to the Congolese government and Cuban military instructors to the leaders of the MPLA, the leftist Angolan rebel movement. In all likelihood, the column that assembled at Peti-1 on February 2 and went to Zaire had originally been intended for the Congo...

read more

9 Guerrillas in Guinea-Bissau

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 185-213

‘‘Fidel is a little pessimistic about Africa,’’ a senior aide told top Cuban officials on January 18, 1967, during a postmortem on the Congo. This pessimism, however, did not extend to Guinea-Bissau.∞ The Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde (PAIGC) was, the Cubans believed, the strongest guerrilla movement in the Portuguese colonies. The Americans agreed. U.S. reports stressed time and again that the PAIGC was ‘‘Africa’s most successful...

read more

10 Castro’s Cuba, 1965–1975

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 214-229

After the departure of Che’s column from Zaire in November 1965 and of Risquet’s column from the Congo thirteen months later, Cuba’s major activity in Africa was its assistance to the PAIGC. The presence of Cubans in Guinea-Bissau was virtually ignored by the Western press and by U.S. officials. Suddenly, in 1975 Castro stunned the world by dispatching thousands of troops to Luanda. The question of whether Havana...

read more

11 The Collapse of the Portuguese Empire

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 230-245

The Portuguese officers staged their coup against Caetano while the United States was negotiating the renewal of its military facilities at Lajes air base in the Azores. Lajes’s importance had been brought into sharp relief during the October 1973 war in the Middle East, when it had been critical to Washington’s massive arms airlift to Israel. ‘‘All our NATO allies,’’ Kissinger...

read more

12 The Gathering Storm: Angola, January–October 1975

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 246-272

Cadelo and Pina arrived in Dar-es-Salaam in late December 1974. In meetings with Neto and other senior MPLA officials, they learned that an MPLA delegation was preparing to go to Moscow to ask for Soviet military aid and that Neto was going to meet Holden Roberto and Savimbi in Mombasa on January 3, 1975, to forge a common position for the upcoming negotiations with the...

read more

13 South Africa’s Friends

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 273-299

For Pretoria, the collapse of the Portuguese dictatorship was a disaster. It turned friends into foes and opened gaping holes in the buffer zone that protected it from the hostile continent to its north. As Mozambique swung to the left and Angola descended into civil war, the instability in Rhodesia and Namibia assumed a more ominous and urgent hue. South Africa’s defenses were crumbling. Namibia, or South West...

read more

14 Pretoria Meets Havana

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 300-327

When the South African column, Zulu, entered Angola on October 14, the MPLA controlled the few towns, the major villages, and the few roads in the south of the country. It also held the entire coast from Namibia to Quifangondo, north of Luanda. UNITA’s territory had shrunk to parts of central Angola, threatened by the FAPLA. In the north, the FAPLA’s elite force, the Ninth Brigade, held back Roberto and his Zairean...

read more

15 Cuban Victory

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 328-346

The Americans who planned the covert operation in Angola had overlooked Castro. A June 10, 1975, intelligence memo listing the ‘‘MPLA’s partisans’’ had included several African states, the Soviet Union, ‘‘Eastern European states, Communist parties and others on the left in Western Europe.’’ But not Cuba. ‘‘Cuba didn’t even enter into our calculations,’’ Deputy Assistant Secretary Mulcahy, one of the advocates of the covert operation, recalled.1 In late August U.S. intelligence...

read more

16 Repercussions

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 347-372

The story of foreign intervention in Angola is complex and important, for in the details of who did what when lie some of the bitter debates of the Cold War. It is therefore necessary to examine the levels and timing of outside support to the two Angolan sides, focusing especially on the role of the Soviet Union. It is also important to analyze the U.S. decision...

read more

17 Looking Back

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 373-396

Cuba’s intervention in Angola did not occur in a vacuum. While it caught Washington flat-footed, it fit, in fact, into the continuum of Cuba’s relations with Africa, the Soviet Union, and the United States. the cuban-soviet relationship in the 1960s As a senior U.S. intelligence officer noted in 1967, Cuba’s ‘‘heavy dependence on the Soviet Union for survival...

Appendix

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 397-398

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 399-502

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 503-538

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 539-552