Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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p. vii

ILLUSTRATIONS

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p. viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

As most authors will concede, writing a book is far from a solitary adventure. Indeed, the debts I owe to those who have supported this project along the way are many. Seven years ago, the editors of the Littlefield Series, T. Michael Parrish and Gary W. Gallagher, offered me the opportunity to write the memory volume. Since that time, they have been unfailingly supportive. Mike...

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Prologue

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pp. 3-11

In September 1990, Ken Burns’s PBS documentary The Civil War captured the nation’s attention, dramatically influencing American perceptions of the grueling war. For a week, millions watched as the eleven-hour series recounted the conflict from the first calls for secession to the final surrenders at Appomattox and Durham Station. Rejecting reenactors and other recreations of battles, Burns...

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1 The War, April 1861–March 1865

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pp. 12-39

In the summer of 1863, Henry W. R. Jackson asked his fellow Confederates to consider the definition of “Yankee.” In his estimation, it was a term “comprehensively expressive of all that is impure, inhuman, uncharitable, unchristian, and uncivilized (barbarian and heathen is scarcely acceptable in the case)” of these “demons of hell in the guise of men.” The lone problem, he contended, was that...

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2 A Magnanimous Peace?, April–May 1865

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pp. 40-72

Routed from their trenches surrounding Petersburg and forced to abandon Richmond, Lee’s ragged troops trudged west in early April 1865 hoping to find provisions and a route south. All along its path the army that had held the heights at Fredericksburg and stormed the ridges of Gettysburg left signs it was disintegrating—littering the roads with broken wagons, ambulances, artillery...

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3 Mourning and Celebration in the Wake of War, 1865–1869

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pp. 73-102

On the morning of June 11, 1865, several Union officers accompanied by a large party of civilians climbed aboard a train in Washington bound for the old battlefield at Manassas. It was far different from the affair for which crowds had gathered in 1861 to witness the first great battle of the war. Now, four years later, these officers and civilians had come to dedicate two monuments, one on the field of the first battle of Bull Run and another on the field where the second battle was...

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4 Union and Emancipation, 1865–1880s

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pp. 103-132

Although Memorial Day services had quickly become an annual observance honoring the Union dead, northern veterans seethed at the burgeoning Lost Cause with its distorted and reimagined renderings of the Confederacy. “It must never be forgotten,” warned former U.S. congressman and director of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association Edward McPherson in 1889, “that the force which was the deciding one between combatants so nearly equally...

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5 The Lost Cause, 1867–1890

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pp. 133-159

For more than three years, George N. Dexter of Georgia had read newspaper accounts of GAR encampments and U.S. veterans’ reunions. A former quartermaster in the 3rd Georgia, he had thought often of a similar meeting with his former comrades—a time when they might gather to clasp each other’s hands, renew friendships, and discuss the struggles and sufferings they had faced in camp and on the field of battle. But like many other former Confederates...

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6 Our Friends, the Enemy, 1880s–Early 1900s

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pp. 160-196

By the summer of 1881, news of the Luray Caverns in Virginia’s famed Shenandoah Valley had spread throughout the East Coast. Only three years after its discovery, tales of the cave’s magnificent stalactites and stalagmites, along with sketches that appeared in Harper’s Weekly, had led scientists, journalists, and visitors from near and far to proclaim its splendor. Union general...

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7 Slavery, Race, and Reconciliation, 1880s–1890s

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pp. 197-231

For three warm autumn days, tens of thousands had enjoyed the reconciliationist spirit of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga park dedication. But all such occasions must come to an end, and such was the case on September 20, 1895, when the veterans of the Army of the Potomac and their former foes from the Army of Northern Virginia met under a great canvas tent at Orchard Knob. For most of the evening...

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8 Women and Reconciliation, 1880s–1910s

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pp. 232-265

At two o’clock on July 21, 1911, the skies above northern Virginia opened and the rain came in torrents. For miles, mud-clogged roads and swollen creeks stranded automobiles, including five that were part of President William Howard Taft’s entourage bound for Manassas. Bedraggled, mudspattered, and nearly two hours late, the president had come to attend the closing exercises of the Manassas....

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9 A New Generation, 1913–1939

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pp. 266-305

In July 1913, Gettysburg once again claimed the nation’s attention. Fifty years after having faced each other in the war’s largest battle, more than 53,000 aging Union and Confederate veterans gathered again amid the sweltering summer heat in the name of reconciliation. For four days, a crowd of nearly 100,000 spectators and press correspondents from all over the nation and Europe watched...

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Epilogue

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pp. 306-312

As the nation prepared to commemorate the 100th anniversary of its greatest war in 1961, many hoped it would do so in the spirit of reconciliation. “The war did not divide us,” insisted retired Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant III. “Rather, it united us, in spite of a long period of bitterness, and made us the greatest and most powerful nation the world had ever seen.” Nearly a century after his grandfather...

Notes

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pp. 313-388

Bibliography

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pp. 389-420

Index

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pp. 421-451