Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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p. vii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

After worrying late one night about hurt feelings due to forgotten names, I dreamed that I simply included one line of acknowledgments —‘‘Thanks to all who supported me and made this book possible.’’ Although such a brief note to family and friends would have been effcient in a number of ways, I ultimately would not have been able to sleep (or dream) at night...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-24

It was a slow and steady movement of people, animals, and an array of property. Not a journey across the Atlantic Ocean, the route of this middle passage was outlined in the snow by a trail of blood and bodies. The Trail of Tears, nv no hi du na tlo yi lv, signifies the intense su√ering experienced by those young and old who traveled in snow and mud, hungry and cold..

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1 On the Run in Antebellum Indian Territory

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pp. 25-50

Having survived the Trail of Tears—the long, perilous passage to Indian Territory—enslaved African Cherokees quickly discovered that the chains of bondage that linked them to Cherokee owners and communities remained constant and taut even in the new territory. Many who made this journey had been forced to leave family...

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2 Day-to-Day Resistance to the Peculiar Institution and the Struggle to Remain Free in the Antebellum Cherokee Nation

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pp. 51-74

Slave resistance. The phrase has historically conjured up particular icons: Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, Nat Turner, Harriet Tubman. It has also invoked certain spaces and images: the hold and deck of slave ships during the Middle Passage; the auction block; slave cabins; rice, sugarcane, cotton, and tobacco plantations...

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3 Conceptualizing and Constructing African Indian Racial and Cultural Identities in Antebellum Indian Territory

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pp. 75-110

Even as Shoe Boots’s free African Cherokee kin grappled with notions concerning their Cherokee blood ties, sense of belonging, and meanings of birthright, especially during particularly perilous moments in the antebellum era, enslaved African Indians in the Five Tribes also developed a keen understanding of their rootedness to these...

Image Plates, Maps

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pp. 111-124

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4 Trapped in the Turmoil: A Divided Cherokee Nation and the Plight of Enslaved African Cherokees during the Civil War Era

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pp. 125-154

Although multiple processes of acculturation and acts of resistance had not resulted in mass emancipation, enslaved African Cherokees in the antebellum Cherokee Nation had, by the late 1850s, become seasoned residents grounded in Cherokee communities. Rumors of an impending war between the North and South triggered fresh hopes of life...

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5 Cherokee Freedpeople’s Struggle for Recognition and Rights during Reconstruction

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pp. 155-178

Although, during the war, many enslaved African Cherokees left their enslavers’ farms and plantations, either of their own volition or as a result of their enslavers’ orders, once the war ended many formerly enslaved people in the Cherokee Nation were intent on returning to their homes in Indian Territory. Like freedpeople throughout the United States, formerly enslaved people of the Cherokees...

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6 Contested Common Ground: Landownership, Race Politics, and Segregation on the Eve of Statehood

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pp. 179-200

While attention was directed toward the Wallace and Kern- Clifton rolls and the resulting consequences to the Cherokee Nation, legislation passed concurrently by the U.S. government would prove to be even more devastating to the integrity of the Cherokee Nation, as well as to the other nations of the Five Tribes. Following the...

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Afterword

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pp. 201-220

The peculiar institution of slavery permeates the historical narrative of people of African descent in the Americas; bondage configured the everyday experiences of enslaved people and often directed their thoughts, words, and actions. Enslaved people of African descent of the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory constructed their lives not only as enslaved human...

Appendix: Treaty with the Cherokee Nation, 1866

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pp. 221-238

Notes

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pp. 239-312

Bibliography

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pp. 313-342

Index

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pp. 343-360