Cover

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Title Page

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p. iii

Copyright Page

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p. iv

Table of Contents

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p. v

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

First and foremost, I owe deep gratitude to Kevin Boyle, who not only helped me focus and shape this work in its early stages but offered his personal support and encouragement during difficult times as well. I know few people whose lives are better expressions of their social democratic values than Kevin, and I am proud to be associated with him. I wish also to thank those who gave important feedback and criticism over the ...

Acronyms

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pp. ix-xi

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Introduction

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pp. 1-18

In 1999, during a meeting of the World Trade Organization, radical protest against corporate globalization shook Seattle, Washington. The relatively small number of young anarchist militants who smashed windows and battled riot control police drew world media attention to a protest that comprised tens of thousands of nonviolent participants. Among their ranks were environmentalists, proponents of...

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Chapter 1 - Sam Lovejoy and the Campaign against the Montague Twin Nuclear Power Station: 1974

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pp. 19-53

In February 1974 the United States seemed to be slowly falling apart. Americans had become familiar with a new word, stagflation, which described the bizarre combination of inflation and unemployment. The nation entered its fourth month of the oil embargo of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), compounding an already serious energy crisis. As automobiles formed lines at...

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Chapter 2 - Massachusetts and the Battle over the Nuclear Power Station at Seabrook, New Hampshire: 1975–1988

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pp. 54-98

In February 1975, frustrated by the lack of legal recourse, antinuclear activists in the upper Rhine town of Wyhl, West Germany, occupied the site of a proposed nuclear reactor. Twenty-eight thousand participants soon joined the action, which lasted ten long months. The occupation at Wyhl was for many U.S. antinuclear activists a protest model that embraced values and tactics that Sam Lovejoy and ...

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Chapter 3 - The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Movement in Massachusetts: 1980–1985

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pp. 99-135

On November 4, 1980, U.S. voters went to the polls to elect a president. The mental climate was angry and impatient, as the various crises of the 1970s came to a head. Earlier, Jimmy Carter, the incumbent president, had described the national mood in terms of a crisis of confidence. For yet another year the nation had endured double-digit inflation, rising unemployment, high interest rates,...

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Chapter 4 - Massachusetts and the National Nuclear Weapons Freeze Movement: 1980–1984

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pp. 136-170

The 1979 national election of Margaret Thatcher and the Conservative Party in Great Britain foreshadowed the rightward turn in American politics symbolized by the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980. Like Reagan, Thatcher called for cuts in social spending, decreased regulation of business, reduced taxation, arms buildup, and a harder line toward the Soviet Union. Even Social Democrats such...

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Chapter 5 - The Central American Solidarity Movement in Massachusetts: 1980–1990

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pp. 171-208

On December 2, 1980, Sisters Ita Ford and Maura Clarke of the Maryknoll Order prepared to take a flight from Managua, Nicaragua, to San Salvador, the capital of El Salvador, and from there return to the small northwestern town of Chalatenango to continue their work. For most of the previous year, they had distributed food and clothing to impoverished refugees who were fleeing the war...

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Chapter 6 - Massachusetts Politicians and Central America:1979–1990

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pp. 209-252

In mid-December 1979 Jim Fairchild and George Allen (staff assistants to the House Appropriations Committee) wrote a letter to State Representative Silvio Conte (the moderate Republican from western Massachusetts and ranking Republican on the Foreign Operations Subcommittee) concerning an upcoming fact-finding trip to Nicaragua. Just months into the Sandinista-led revolution that ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 253-259

In 1989 Alfredo Cristiani of the National Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista [ARENA]) party in El Salvador assumed the presidency. During the election, Cristiani had tried to distance the ARENA party image from association with Roberto D’Aubuisson and the death squads. While Cristiani’s efforts earned growing U.S. congressional support for the Salvadoran government, solidarity...

Notes

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pp. 261-309

Index

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pp. 311-323

Back Cover

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