Cover

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Title page, Copyright

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Preface

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pp. v-vi

The contents of The Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550–1624, had their origin in an international conference of the same title, held inWilliamsburg, Virginia, March 4–7, 2004. The intention of the conference and this resulting volume is to commemorate the four hundredth anniversary of the Jamestown settlement by approaching...

Contents

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p. vii

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Introduction

Peter C. Mancall

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pp. 1-26

The local inhabitants of Tsenacommacah, the Paspaheghs, knew their environment well. They used the best lands in the region for their home sites and fields, knew where to hunt and fish nearby, and eschewed swamp land since it attracted mosquitoes and could not be farmed. Hence, in the spring of 1607, they must have viewed askance the group of English colonizers who had sailed up the Chesapeake...

PART ONE: NATIVE AMERICAN SETTINGS

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Tsenacommacah and the Atlantic World

Daniel K. Richter

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pp. 29-65

In what may be the only surviving early-seventeenth-century example of the genre,William Strachey, secretary of the Virginia Company of London, did his best to reduce to Roman letters a ‘‘scornefull song’’ that victorious Powhatan warriors chanted after they killed three or four Englishmen ‘‘and tooke one Symon Score a saylor...

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Between Old World and New: Oconee Valley Residents and the Spanish Southeast, 1540–1621

Joseph Hall

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pp. 66-96

In 1621, Lieutenant Marmaduke Parkinson and his English companions made an intriguing discovery on their way up the Potomac River. While the English were visiting their Patawomeck allies, their chief showed them ‘‘a China Boxe.’’ According to Governor George Yeardley and his council’s summary of Parkinson’s report...

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Escape from Tsenacommacah: Chesapeake Algonquians and the Powhatan Menace

James D. Rice

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pp. 97-140

One of the best-known images of life in early Virginia, frequently reprinted in textbooks, popular histories, and scholarly monographs, depicts a malevolent-looking Indian named Iopassus as he attempts. to lure Pocahontas into the hands of the English captain Samuel Argall. Iopassus, the brother of the powerful ,em>weroance (

PART TWO: AFRICA AND THE ATLANTIC

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The Caravel and the Caravan: Reconsidering Received Wisdom in the Sixteenth-Century Sahara

E. Ann McDougall

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pp. 143-169

The image of a plucky, seaworthy caravel that epitomizes the fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century beginnings of the Atlanticworld seems far removed from that of the Sahara’s centuries-old camel caravan, rhythmically meandering its way across desert sands. But in the course of the next century or so, both image and reality......

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The Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic World

David Northrup

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pp. 170-193

In August 1553, Captain Thomas Windham set sail from Portsmouth for the Gulf of Guinea, the middle section of the Atlantic coast of sub-Saharan Africa, below the western bulge the Portuguese called Upper Guinea and above the coast of what they called Angola (West Central Africa).This pioneering English trading expedition...

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Central African Leadership and the Appropriation of European Culture

Linda Heywood & John Thornton

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pp. 194-224

January 3, 1608, Dom Antonio Manuel, the marquis of Funta (in the Kingdom of Kongo) and Kongolese ambassador to Rome, arrived in the Holy City. He came at the head of a small entourage of six, ‘‘black in appearance, but of noble and serious customs,’’ and ‘‘above all he was pious and devout’’ as a Catholic, possessor of ‘‘value and prudence in negotiations.’’ He had come from and represented...

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African Identity and Slave Resistance in the Portuguese Atlantic

James H. Sweet

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pp. 225-248

Every good historian of early English North America is familiar with the story of the ‘‘20. and odd Negroes’’ that arrived in Jamestown in 1619, purchased from a Dutch ‘‘man of Warr’’ by English settlers who themselves arrived in the Chesapeake only some twelve years earlier. We now know that this Dutch ship arrived at Point...

PART THREE: EUROPEAN MODELS

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The Multinational Commodification of Tobacco, 1492–1650: An Iberian Perspective

Marcy Norton & Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert

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pp. 251-273

Some twenty years after the settling of Jamestown, Charles I remained openly ambivalent about the prospects of Virginia. The problem was tobacco, a plant that never found much favor with his predecessor, James I, who in 1604 penned the famous tract A Counterblaste to Tobacco. ‘‘This plantation,’’ Charles wrote in 1627, ‘‘is wholly built upon smoke, tobacco being the only means it has...

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Revisioning the ‘‘French Atlantic’’: or, How to Think about the French Presence in the Atlantic, 1550–1625

Philip P. Boucher

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pp. 274-306

The goals of this essay are modest—to present a narrative-driven overview of the ‘‘French Atlantic’’ in the era 1550–1625 and to provide scholars of the Atlantic world with a summary of the most current literature. Modern scholarship has significantly affected our understanding of the ebbs and flows in French interests in the Atlantic basin.1 This literature may not yet be easily accessible or well known...

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Kings, Captains, and Kin: French Views of Native American Political Cultures in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries

Peter Cook

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pp. 307-341

For most of the sixteenth century, French-language writing on the Americas tended to portray Native American societies as monarchies. There were two main sources for this particular representation of Native American polities. The first was the small but ever-growing body of literature on European encounters with New World peoples...

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Virginia’s Other Prototype: The Caribbean

Philip D. Morgan

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pp. 342-380

Early Virginia’s roots have been traced to many places. Ireland, for one, ranks as an important prototype for Virginia’s development. Many of the Englishmen who were prominent in the Virginia adventure participated in plantations in Ireland, that ‘‘famous Island in the Virginian Sea,’’ as one Elizabethan put it.Through years...

PART FOUR: INTELLECTUAL CURRENTS

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Moral Uncertainty in the Dispossession of Native Americans

Andrew Fitzmaurice

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pp. 383-409

Over the course of five hundred years from 1492, natural lawemerged as the preeminent legal instrument for the dispossession of indigenous peoples. In the sixteenth century, in what is now a well-known story, the Salamanca School in Spain made the first use of natural law to consider the position of colonized peoples.1 The Salamanca writers were widely read in Europe, and (outside Spain) nowhere more...

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Discourses of Western Planting: Richard Hakluyt and the Making of the Atlantic World

David Harris Sacks

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pp. 410-453

On October 5, 1584, Richard Hakluyt, already embarked on his extensive geographical researches, personally delivered to Elizabeth I a long memorandum, written in English, supporting Walter Ralegh’s plan for a settlement in Virginia.1 The modern title of this document, ‘‘Discourse of West-...

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Reading Ralegh’s America: Texts, Books, and Readers in the Early Modern Atlantic World

Benjamin Schmidt

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pp. 454-488

Though hobbled by bad knees, SirWalter Ralegh was blessed with a good stomach. It may seem striking to us today that the illustrious soldier, energetic explorer, and exquisite courtier who easily leaps to the top of any list of quintessential ‘‘Elizabethan gentlemen’’ had limited mobility and, from as early as his forties, horrible difficulty simply walking.The greatest conquistador of Renaissance England was...

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The Genius of Ancient Britain

David S. Shields

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pp. 489-510

What does Captain John Smith’s life mean four hundred years after his landing in Jamestown? The answer is complicated. If one were to judge by the Commonwealth of Virginia’s gala ‘‘America’s 400th Anniversary,’’ it would appear not much. In the welter of tall ship cruises, Native America symposia, democracy fora, African-American cultural events, artifact displays, and teacher lesson plans, the...

PART FIVE: THE ATLANTIC WORLD AND VIRGINIA, 1550–1624

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Imperfect Understandings: Rumor, Knowledge, and Uncertainty in Early Virginia

James Horn

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pp. 513-540

‘‘Casacunnakack, peya quagh acquintan uttasantasough?’’ In how many days will more ships come? Opechancanough, chief of the Pamunkeys, had been watching the white men encamped at Paspahegh (Jamestown Island) for some time. He had seen their numbers steadily dwindle during the summer and fall and the ever more desperate efforts of starving survivors to get corn from peoples nearby....

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The Iberian Atlantic and Virginia

J. H. Elliott

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pp. 541-557

From the standpoint of European history, the story of early colonial Virginia is the story of the intrusion of an alien group of English men and women— totaling some 200 in 1609 and 843 in 1621—into an Iberian Atlantic world. From the standpoint of the history of the indigenous peoples of America, it is equally the story of an intrusion...

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Virginia and the Atlantic World

Stuart B. Schwartz

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pp. 558-570

At the birth of the tiny settlement on the Virginia shore at the dawn of the seventeenth century, Spain, like Banquo’s ghost, hovered over those woodlands and provided an unseen but always-present context for much of what was decided both in London and in the fledgling colony itself. The original settlers had stopped first in the Spanish...

Conference Program

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pp. 571-574

Index

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pp. 575-594

Notes on the Contributors

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pp. 595-596