Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

I owe a debt of gratitude to Suzanne Noguere, an accomplished poet and playwright and an admirer of Francis’s craft, who introduced me to his poetry. She has enriched my life through his work. Among colleagues and friends who offered guidance and wisdom, Denis Donoghue reminded me always to write in the service of Francis’s poetry. ...

Works by Robert Francis

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pp. xi-xii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-6

This study centers on a critical discussion of the prose and poetry of the American writer Robert Francis. Intrigued by the elusiveness of his persona as he displays it in different genres— essays, fiction, autobiography— I tease out the correspondences, continuities, and parallels among these works to demonstrate that they offer several examples of distanced self-portraiture in prose and foreshadow the ways his ...

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1. A Cautious Distance

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pp. 7-25

Elusiveness is a hallmark of Robert Francis, a trait that also inhabits the poetry and prose he carefully crafted. In a valedictory issue of the Painted Bride Quarterly (1988) devoted to critical discussion of the poet and his work, Robert Bradley speaks of a late Francis poem composed entirely of compound nouns: “The details Francis attends to are here, but paradoxically, he is invisible” (75). To David Graham, a ...

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2. Inhabiting Juniper

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pp. 26-48

Between 1931 and 1987 Robert Francis wrote seven volumes of poetry and two books of essays on poetry, in addition to a reminiscence of Robert Frost and prose works in different genres. Apart from critical essays devoted to individual lyrics, and in spite of thoughtful reviews of the Collected Poems (1976), only one comprehensive study of his poetry has been undertaken.1 The reason lies not only in his preference for ...

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3. Dwelling in Uncertainties and Straddling Extremes

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pp. 49-72

As the title of his fourth book suggests, The Face Against the Glass (1950) presents Francis as an observer, alone and cut off. Indeed, it was written during what the poet called “a period of crisis,” when he often spent evenings in his house hiding from people. After 1944, the nearly complete rejection of his work by publishers and the feelings of failure it summoned caused him to withdraw, turn inward, and ...

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4. Experiments with Form and the Poetry of Protest

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pp. 73-98

The poem that provided the title for Francis’s sixth volume appears in The Orb Weaver, offering a sharp contrast in mood to the work at the end of that collection. Inspired by his anticipation of the advent of spring, it begins with a directive to the reader to “Come out into the sun” (205), and concludes in a buoyant chant: ...

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5. Learning to Hover

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pp. 99-118

In Robert Francis’s reminiscence of Robert Frost, A Time to Talk, the entry dated April 4, 1932, contains a poem published the day before in a newspaper in nearby Springfield. Francis wrote the poem to commemorate Frost’s arrival at Amherst. Here are its final stanzas: ...

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6. The Teasing Paradox

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pp. 119-136

Robert Francis once remarked in an interview that he was careful to keep his distance from people who “might interrupt my thought, misunderstand me, make me feel inferior, or even impose their wills on me” (qtd. in Tetreault and Karcher 9). It is thus surprising that in The Trouble With Francis so guarded a man would reveal his homosexuality in an era when it was regarded as perverse, criminal, and a ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 137-148

Robert Francis was a private man. Despite Having written in various genres— eight books of poetry, a journal, a memoir of his talks with Frost, essays on poetry, and an autobiography— he was very careful not to reveal too much about himself. This characteristic reserve was fostered as much by self-consciousness as an avoidance of self-promotion. Although his work drew high praise from Marianne Moore, ...

Notes

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pp. 149-164

Works Cited

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pp. 165-170

Index

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pp. 171-175