Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

This book had its inception at a conference, “The Resegregation of Southern Schools?: A Crucial Moment in the History (and the Future) of Public Schooling in America,” which was conceived simultaneously in the winter of 2001 by the University of North Carolina School of Law’s then-fl edgling Center for Civil Rights and by The Civil Rights Project...

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Introduction. The Southern Dilemma: Losing Brown, Fearing Plessy

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pp. 1-26

The Supreme Court’s 1954 decision declaring segregated schools unconstitutional directly threatened the South’s social traditions. After Reconstruction was dismantled in the 1870s and 1880s, the South gained the right to manage race relations as it wished. It built a comprehensive system of racial separation, a system legitimized by the Supreme Court in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson “separate but equal”...

PART 1 The History of the Federal Judicial Role: From Brown to Green to Color-Blind

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1 The Segregation and Resegregation of American Public Education: The Courts’ Role

Gary Orfield

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pp. 29-48

half century of efforts to end school segregation have largely failed. Gary Orfi eld’s powerful recent study, Schools More Separate: Consequences of a Decade of Resegregation, carefully documents that during the 1990s, America’s public schools have become substantially more segregated. In the South, for example, he shows that from “1988 to 1998, most of the progress of the previous two decades in increasing integration in the region was lost. The South is still...

PART 2 The Color of Southern Schooling: Contemporary Trends

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2 Integrating Neighborhoods, Segregating Schools: The Retreat from School Desegregation in the South, 1990–2000

Sean F. Reardon John T. Uun

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pp. 51-69

After decades as the most successfully integrated schools in the United States, the schools of the South appear to be moving slowly toward resegregation. During the 1990s, public schools throughout the South became increasingly segregated. Black-white public school segregation, in particular, increased in almost every state in the South from 1990 to 2000. Indeed, black-white school segregation increased in more than threequarters of the one hundred counties in the...

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3 Classroom-Level Segregation and Resegregation in North Carolina

Charles T. Clotfelter Helen F. Ladd | Jacob L. Vigdor

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pp. 70-86

In the two decades following the momentous Brown v. Board of Education decision, the South’s public schools underwent an astounding transformation. Whereas all of its public schools had been strictly segregated by race in 1954, they had become by 1974 the nation’s most racially integrated schools1 In North Carolina, official resistance to desegregation initially forestalled all but token integration...

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4 The Incomplete Desegregation of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools and Its Consequences, 1971–2004

Roslyn Arlin Mickelson

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pp. 87-110

Advocates look to desegregation as the touchstone to equality of educational opportunity. Critics call it a failed social experiment.1 As judicial mandates to desegregate end across the country, the history and consequences of desegregation in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools (CMS) offer us the opportunity to assess the contributions of desegregation and segregation to racial differences in student...

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5 School Segregation in Texas at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century

Luis M. Laosa

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pp. 111-124

The increasing size and diversity of the population of the state of Texas — particularly when considered in regard to the distribution of children among schools by ethnorace, home language, and socioeconomic status — pose serious questions and challenges for educational policy and practice in the state and generally for the nation. These issues include those concerning school segregation....

PART 3 The Adverse Impacts of Resegregation

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6 Does Resegregation Matter?: The Impact of Social Composition on Academic Achievement in Southern High Schools

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pp. 127-147

The issue of school segregation came to the forefront of education policy when, in 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court declared that the de jure segregation of schools was unconstitutional because it was “inherently un equal.”1 Subsequent litigation and federal legislation, primarily during the 1960s and 1970s, led to increased racial integration, especially in the South. For example, the percentage...

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7 Racial Segregation in Georgia Public Schools, 1994–2001: Trends, Causes, and Impact on Teacher Quality

Catherine E. Freeman, Benjamin Scafidi

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pp. 148-163

Despite the signifi cant increase in black-white integration in public education between 1954 and 1988, there is evidence that public schools in the southeastern United States are reversing this trend and becoming more racially segregated.1 Any decrease in integration is problematic, especially if it harms the educational opportunities available to minority students. This chapter provides analyses...

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8 The Impact of School Segregation on Residential Housing Patterns: Mobile, Alabama, and Charlotte, North Carolina

Erica Fankenberg

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pp. 164-184

A number of recent key school-assignment cases handed down by the U.S. Supreme Court have pointedly declined to address residential segregation when ruling on whether a district has dismantled its system of separate and unequal schools. Schooling and residential patterns of racial segregation, however, are demonstrably interconnected. Segregated neighborhoods often create segregated...

PART 4 The New Pressures from Standardized Testing

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9 No Accountability for Diversity: Standardized Tests and the Demise of Racially Mixed Schools

Amy Stuart Wells, Jennifer Jellison

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pp. 187-211

Over the past two decades, we have witnessed two overlapping trends in education: an increase in racially segregated schools, and an unprecedented rise in the use of standardized tests to hold both educators and students accountable for higher levels of achievement. While the relationship between these......

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10 High-Stakes Testing, Nationally and in the South: Disparate Impact, Opportunity to Learn, and Current Legal Protections

Jay P. Heubert

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pp. 212-236

This chapter focuses on “high-stakes” tests, defi ned here as tests that states and school districts use in deciding whether individual students will receive high school diplomas or be promoted to the next grade. It places the South’s graduation and promotion test programs into the context of such testing nationally....

PART 5 The Uncertain Future

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11 The Future of Race-Conscious Policies in K–12 Public Schools: Support from Recent Legal Opinions and Social Science Research

Jacinta S. Ma | Michal Kurlaender

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pp. 239-260

As other chapters of this book have discussed in greater detail, racial patterns in the public schools have changed dramatically since the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education. We are more than a decade into a period in which federal courts are declaring many school districts unitary and dismantling long-running and very successful desegregation plans. The massive...

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12 Moving beyond Race: Socioeconomic Diversity as a Race-Neutral Approach to Desegregation in the Wake County Schools

Susan Leigh fFinspach | Karen E. Banks

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pp. 261-280

This chapter draws on a study of diversity and achievement in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS).1 The school system has a reputation for high-quality, high-achieving schools and, following an era of race-based school desegregation, for preserving school diversity through a race-neutral approach to student assignment. The Wake County district includes Raleigh, the capital of North...

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13 A New Theory of Integrated Education: True Integration

John A. Powell

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pp. 281-304

Fifty years ago, Brown v. Board of Education recognized public education as fundamental to good citizenship. More recently, the U.S. Supreme Court acknowledged it as “pivotal to ‘sustaining our political and cultural heritage’ with a fundamental role in maintaining the fabric of society.”1 Every state makes education compulsory, and it is usually the largest single item in a state’s budget, for...

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Conclusion. Brown and the American South: Fateful Choices

John Charles Boger

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pp. 305-328

The Supreme Court’s unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education has prompted fi ve decades of intense struggle over the future of American public education and, more deeply, over the meaning of the nation’s commitment to equality under the law. Despite subsequent disappointments, failures, and partial measures in implementing Brown, nothing has diminished either its central...

Bibliography

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pp. 329-360

Contributors

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pp. 361-364

Index

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pp. 365-381