Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. vii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

Why do nations cooperate, even as they try to destroy each other? I address this question in the context of the Second World War, where states attempted to sustain agreements limiting the use of force in three forms of combat considered heinous and unthinkable-commerce raiding by submarines, strategic bombing...

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1. Theories of Cooperation

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pp. 1-34

Even enemies can cooperate. Churchill and Hitler were bitter opponents, and their countries fought an unforgiving fight. Nonetheless, Britain and Germany reached accords on the use of force, and some of those agreements endured the bloodshed of the Second World War. This cooperation involved three means of warfare-submarine attacks against merchant ships, aerial bombing...

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2. Submarine Warfare

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pp. 35-93

The submarine today is accepted along with tanks, airplanes, and artillery as a standard item in the armed forces of the world. Yet the underwater boat has an infamous history. In the 1920S and 1930S, the submarine-known as the "viper of the sea" - was viewed as one of the more heinous tools of combat.1 It was...

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3. Strategic Bombing

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pp. 94-143

From 20,000 feet the familiar surroundings of life-buildings, homes, cars-appear unnaturally small. "The people look like ants!" is a commonly heard refrain among first-time airline passengers. Perhaps it was this perspective which made it easier for the young aviators of World War II to flatten the homes of enemy civilians hundreds of miles behind the front lines, much as one...

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4. Chemical Warfare

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pp. 144-216

One of the most intriguing questions in the history of warfare is why chemical weapons were not used in the Second World War. Poison gas was employed on a massive scale in the First World War, especially in its latter stages. In the 1920S and 1930s, nations expected, and went to considerable efforts preparing for, chemical warfare in a future conflict. Yet in the midst of the "total war"...

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5. Explaining Cooperation

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pp. 217-235

Restraint in the use of force in World War II was a form of collusion. In some areas it endured, in others it failed. In this chapter I attempt to account for this variation in cooperation "under fire." First, I summarize the empirical findings and relative explanatory value of the three perspectives. I argue that organizational culture provides the best explanation for the variation in cooperation...

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Epilogue

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pp. 236-241

Although some have argued that major-power war is obsolete, history's record of repetitive conflict suggests otherwise. 1 Restraint continues to demand attention. Some of the taboos discussed in the interwar period remain intact to varying degrees today. Chemical and biological warfare are still stigmatized. And given the general concern over civilian casualties in the Gulf War, so too...

Appendix

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pp. 242-246

Index

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pp. 247-256