Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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p. vii

Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Series Preface

Theda Perdue, Michael D. Green

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pp. xxi-xii

The Creek Nation was one of the Native nations overwhelmed by the U.S. removal policy of the 1820s and 1830s. Living on lands claimed by Georgia and Alabama, the Creeks were subjected to the demands of both the states and the federal government to surrender ownership of their territory and migrate to a country west of the Mississippi River. Although the policy of removal affected...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xii-xiv

In 2002 I left my hometown of Bellingham, Washington, to study Creek Indian history under Kathryn E. Holland Braund at Auburn University. Having grown up surrounded by the Coast Salish culture— my father worked for more than thirty years in the Lummi Nation— Alabama and Creek Indian history offered me the..

Notes on Terminology

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p. xv

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Introduction: Water, 1848

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pp. 1-10

On 18 June 1848 Echo Fixico, an elderly Chehaw man who, by his own account, was “considerably over 100 years old,” died one evening in Lewisburg, Arkansas, while on his way to the Indian territory. He was one in a party of sixty- five Creek Indian emigrants who had left their ancestral homeland for a new life in...

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1. Treason: 1825–27

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pp. 11-41

On 12 February 1825, William McIntosh and fifty of his handpicked supporters signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, ceding the Creek domain in Georgia and a large portion of their territory within Alabama to the federal government. Because the treaty evicted the Creeks from the cession and promoted voluntary emigration to Indian territory, it was both a removal and an emigration document...

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2. Fission: 1827–28

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pp. 42-57

While most of the Lower Creeks were rebuilding their lives after the loss of their Georgia lands, members of the McIntosh party were surveying an area west of the Arkansas Territory and preparing for their emigration by packing their possessions into wagons. Although the McIntosh Creeks anticipated emigrating quickly after the Treaty of Indian Springs signing, the death of McIntosh and the reactions...

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3. Frenzy: 1828–29

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pp. 58-81

Although approximately seven hundred Creeks and their slaves voluntarily emigrated from the Creek Nation in November 1827, this number did not represent all the people who decided to move west. Some Mc Intosh party members did not leave with Chilly McIntosh, but chose to wait for the second voluntary emigration almost a year later. Some decided to emigrate with the third voluntary...

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4. Fraud: 1829–35

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pp. 82-113

As 1829 gave way to 1830, Creek headmen found themselves faced with assaults on two fronts. The election of President Andrew Jackson in 1828 promised a more concerted federal effort to coerce the Creeks to Indian territory. The other came in the form of whites who crossed into the Creek country illegally to squat on Creek land. In most cases, these settlers simply picked an unoccupied...

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5. Eclipse: 1833–36

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pp. 114-148

The failure of the 1832 Treaty of Washington was a devastating setback for the Creek people. The Creeks had already surrendered more than half their domain to the United States, and hundreds more of their reserves were transferred to whites either through legitimate sales or because of fraud. Landless, poor, and backed into a corner with few acceptable options, many Creeks were pushed...

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6. Sand: 1828–50

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pp. 149-174

A minority of the Creeks who immigrated to the West between 1827 and 1835 were McIntosh family members, friends, or business partners. Most of this group probably saw profits to be made from the move. There were also large numbers of Creeks with no connection to William McIntosh who emigrated for reasons known only to them. Many were Lower Creeks, formerly of Georgia, who had...

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7. Chains: 1836

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pp. 175-199

Undeterred by their failures and still under contract to emigrate five thousand Creeks, the employees of John W. A. Sanford & Company charged forward enrolling emigrants. The contractors confidently guaranteed that they would get at least eight thousand Upper Creeks to voluntarily move in the spring of...

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8. Coercion: 1836–37

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pp. 200-233

The commencement of the Second Creek War officially ended the government’s voluntary emigration program. Unsuccessful in their attempt to convince large numbers of Creeks to move west, administration officials could only concede that the policy was a failure. The war, however, gave Andrew Jackson the excuse he needed...

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9. Defiance: 1837–49

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pp. 234-269

For the over fifteen thousand Creeks who were forced and coerced from Alabama in the year 1836, their long struggle to remain on their ancestral homeland was over. Many did not go without a fight and subsequently began their journey west in chains. The rest went peacefully, but with begrudging consent. There were, however...

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10. Perseverance: 1837–82

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pp. 270-295

Adjusting to life in the Indian territory was extremely difficult for those who relocated to the West in 1836 and 1837. Forced to find new land, construct new homes, and plant new fields, these Creeks struggled to maintain their traditional ways of life in their new country. In the meantime, the new immigrants lived in temporary...

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Conclusion: Persistence, 2014

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pp. 296-302

In 1839 British traveler James Silk Buckingham stopped for the night at a local Columbus, Georgia, hotel. Unable to avoid missing the massive portrait of a Creek Indian headman in the lobby, Buckingham marveled at the irony. “Though the people of America seem anxious to get rid of the actual presence of the Indian...

List of Abbreviations

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pp. 303-304

Notes

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pp. 305-366

Bibliography

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pp. 367-394

Index

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pp. 395-414

Other Works in the Series

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pp. 415-416