Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

Tables and Figures

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pp. vii-ix

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xv

The genesis of this book dates back to 2004–5 when I was interested in exploring how international commerce enabled states to augment their military capabilities. I began to investigate how countries acquired military technology. It appeared that in many cases countries did not pursue the most obvious strategy: the procurement of complete weapons systems from other states. Nor did they seem to turn to black markets to the same degree that mainstream media coverage seemed to...

Abbreviations

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pp. xvii-xviii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-12

In the late 1950s a South African nuclear scientist named J. Wynand de Villiers traveled to the United States to visit Argonne National Laboratory— a hub of America’s atomic research at the time—which was located about 25 miles southwest of Chicago.1 He had been invited by the U.S. government to receive training in the peacetime applications of nuclear energy. In the spirit of “atoms for peace,” Washington...

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1 Definitions and Patterns of Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation

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pp. 13-30

Since the initial drive by the United States to share technology and knowledge for peaceful purposes in the 1950s, civilian nuclear cooperation has occurred regularly. Nevertheless, it remains poorly understood and has rarely received scholarly attention. Some important questions must be addressed before analyzing the causes and strategic effects of nuclear cooperation. What is peaceful nuclear assistance...

PART I

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2 Economic Statecraft and Atoms for Peace

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pp. 33-48

Why do countries provide peaceful nuclear assistance to other states? Suppliers use this type of foreign aid as a tool of economic statecraft to infl uence the behavior of their friends and adversaries. Civilian aid is strategically valuable in part because it strengthens the recipient country economically and bolsters the bilateral relationship between the supplier and importer. Some have argued that nuclear assistance...

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3 The Historical Record

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pp. 49-80

Countries use peaceful nuclear assistance as a means to enhance their political infl uence by managing their relationships with strategically important states. In particular, suppliers provide aid to: (1) keep their allies and alliances strong; (2) constrain their adversaries by cultivating closer ties with states that are vulnerable to infl uence or aggression from their enemies; and (3) prop up existing democracies (if the supplier...

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4 Nuclear Arms and Influence

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pp. 81-109

Do the causal processes driving my theory operate correctly in actual cases of civilian nuclear assistance? One way to answer this question is to qualitatively evaluate cases where my statistical model correctly predicted the occurrence of nuclear cooperation.1 Such cases should yield two main pieces of evidence if my argument is correct. First, leaders and other senior decision makers should justify atomic assistance...

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5 A Thirst for Oil and Other Motives

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pp. 110-128

On average, suppliers use nuclear aid as a tool of economic statecraft to infl uence the behavior of their friends and adversaries. There are cases of nuclear cooperation, however, that are not successfully predicted by my theory. Out of all the cases in the dataset where nuclear cooperation agreements were signed about 20 percent do not appear to be influenced by the supplier state’s political interests.1 This chapter examines nine of these outlying cases to uncover the reasons for the onset of...

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6 Oil for Peaceful Nuclear Assistance?

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pp. 129-140

Oil is a critical resource in contemporary international politics. It is essential for economic growth and energy security—particularly for countries that use oil to generate electricity.1 States therefore often pursue foreign policies that ensure a stable supply of oil. 2 For example, countries may export strategic commodities such as arms to states that are oil producers in order to receive oil imports on favorable....

PART II

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7 Spreading Temptation

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pp. 143-179

Nuclear suppliers transfer nuclear technology, materials, and know-how to enhance their politico-strategic influence in international politics. In particular, countries offer aid to strengthen allies and alliances; forge closer relationships with enemies of enemies; strengthen ties with other democracies; and enhance their energy security by trading technology, materials, and know-how for oil—but only when petroleum...

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8 Who Builds Bombs?

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pp. 180-206

Peaceful nuclear assistance raises the risk that countries will pursue nuclear weapons, especially if security threats later arise. Does nuclear cooperation also increase the likelihood that states will successfully build the bomb? If so, how? Statistical tests reveal that there is a correlation between nuclear cooperation agreements and nuclear weapons production...

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9 Have International Institutions Made the World Safer?

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pp. 207-238

The international community, led by major powers such as the United States, has instituted policies to separate the peaceful and military uses of the atom. The 1968 nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty established a comprehensive system of safeguards to make it more difficult for countries to draw on peaceful nuclear assistance to build nuclear weapons; the Additional Protocol fortified the safeguards regime in..

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Conclusion

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pp. 239-256

This book has broadly addressed the use of economic statecraft to achieve foreign policy objectives and the ways in which attempts to infl uence the behavior of other states can have unintended consequences for international security. It has analyzed three specifi c questions relating to civilian nuclear cooperation: Why do nuclear suppliers provide peaceful nuclear assistance to other countries? Does peaceful nuclear...

Notes

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pp. 257-308

Index

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pp. 309-320