Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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p. vii

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Ethnomusicology Multimedia Series Preface

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pp. ix-xii

Each of the audio, video, or still- image media examples listed below is associated with specific passages in this book, and each example has been assigned a unique Persistent Uniform Resource Locator, or PURL. The PURL identifies a specific audio, video, or still- image media example on the Ethnomusicology Multimedia website, www.ethnomultimedia . org. Within...

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xiv

In September 2000, when I assumed the role of translator between the Greek oud player Christos Tsiamoulēs and the Turkish kanun player Göksel Baktagir, who was my kanun teacher, I had no idea this would be the beginning of a dilettante’s curiosity about Greek music that would gradually turn into passion for a research topic. Tsiamoulēs was visiting...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xviii

The writing and publication of this book have been possible thanks to the support of many colleagues, friends, and institutions. The Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation made possible my first long- term stay and research in Greece, in 2004–2005. I want to thank Maria Pagoni at Foreigners’ Fellowships Programme for her unforgettable kindness and helpfulness. Most important, I would like to extend my deepest gratitude...

A Note on Pronunciation and Transliteration

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p. xix

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Introduction

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pp. 1-16

In the 1990s, Turkish society began to face the ruptures and shifts in its own past, as witnessed by an explosion of cultural productions that celebrated the linguistic and cultural differences within the country.1 In the press and other media, the public’s interest turned to Turkey’s pre– nation- state past, more precisely to the pluralistic image of the multiethnic and multiconfessional...

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1 The City’s Greek Orthodox: An Overview

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pp. 17-38

Around the mid- nineteenth century, Ottoman statesmen initiated extensive reforms to bring the empire into the fold of a new and modern administrative model. They were inspired by the system of state and society in Europe. More precisely, Ottoman bureaucrats introduced reforms and new institutions in the legal and fiscal realms with the aim of centralizing the administration...

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2 Liturgical Music and the Middle Class

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pp. 39-67

In ancient philosophy, music was considered a privileged pedagogical field whose correct cultivation served the moral development of the person and consequently the flourishing of the collectivity in which he lived. In the early centuries of Christianity, music was also significant as an effective means of communicating with the divine. In various passages of their writings, the great fathers of the Church addressed Christians in musical terms...

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3 Confronting the Musical Past

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pp. 68-96

For Greek nationalists of the nineteenth century, the four hundred years between 1453 and 1821 were a time in which the Greek nation fell away from the scientific and cultural progress of Eu rope due to being under the oppressive rule of an oriental empire. Similarly to other post- Ottoman states, in the Kingdom of Greece, national history writing labeled this period “the Turkish yoke” and celebrated the rebirth of the nation that, supposedly...

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4 The Music Debate and Tradition

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pp. 97-127

Nearly ten years after the dissolution of the Musical Society of Constantinople, the city’s Greek Orthodox intelligentsia and its wealthy and educated strata rolled up their sleeves in order to solve what they considered the “musical issue.” The profile of the musical commission they created within the Greek Literary Society of Constantinople (GLS) in 1877 is remarkable...

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5 Music and National Identity

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pp. 128-150

The discourse on music and its repre sen ta tion of the nation was, in fact, part of a larger discourse on identity in the Greek Orthodox populations of the Ottoman Empire who, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century, strove to come to terms with the meaning of Greekness and the conceptions of East and West. The Greek Orthodox learned elite presented...

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6 Singing and Political Allegiance

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pp. 151-163

State surveillance and censorship of music and popular entertainment in late Ottoman Istanbul affected a multitude of the citizens of the empire. However, conjecturally, this control sometimes particularly targeted suspect “minority” populations. Pursuing a delicate foreign policy toward the Great Powers, Abdülhamid II was careful to keep seditious and provocative public discourse under control, especially in regard to precarious...

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Conclusion

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pp. 164-170

Music was highly operative in the construction of national, religious, and class identities in the late Ottoman Empire. In the course of the nineteenth century, the empire’s ethnoreligious groups began to form discourses on their national essence and conceptualize themselves as nations as they became more and more interested in their pre- Ottoman identities and...

Notes

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pp. 171-224

Bibliography

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pp. 225-254

Index

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pp. 255-266