Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-vi

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. vii

This is a book about how a lesson once learned can be used again. It is also a book about future writing and speaking, about preparing for discourse that is yet to be. It takes advantage of the longest-lasting teaching process in Western civilization, which was devised by Roman schoolmasters more than a century before the birth of Christ...

read more

Part One: The Didactic Phase: Learning About Quintilian

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-lviii

In one sense this is the story of a centuries-old successful approach to the teaching of speaking and writing, and in another sense it is the story of the one ancient book that best typifies that approach. To understand the story, we have to start at the beginning...

read more

Part Two: The Inductive Phase: Learning From Quintilian

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. lix-lxvi

Perhaps the most important aspect of these methods is their coordination into a single instructional program. Each is important for itself, but takes greater importance from its place within the whole. The outline below illustrates how these elements...

A Note on the Text

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. lxviii

ON THE EARLY EDUCATION OF THE CITIZEN-ORATOR: BOOKS ONE AND TWO OF THE INSTITUTIO ORATOR/A

read more

Quintilian to Trypho, Wishing Health

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-3

YOU HAVE prevailed on me, by your daily importunity, to 1 proceed at once to publish the books on the Education of an Orator, which I had addressed to my friend Marcellus. For my own part, I thought that they were not yet sufficiently advanced toward perfection. On the composition of them, as you know, I spent little more than two years, while distracted by so many other occupations; and this...

read more

Preface, Addressed to Marcellus Victorius

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 4-10

WHEN CERTAIN persons, after I had secured rest from my labors, which for twenty years I had devoted to the instruction of youth, requested of me in a friendly manner to write something on the art of speaking, I certainly resisted their solicitations for a long time: I was not ignorant that authors of the greatest celebrity in both languages had bequeathed to posterity many treatises having...

Book I

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 11-11

read more

Chapter One

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 11-18

LET A FATHER, then, as soon as his son is born, conceive first of all the best possible hopes of him; he will thus grow the more solicitous about his improvement from the very beginning. It is a complaint without foundation that very few people are granted the faculty of comprehending what is imparted to them, and that most, through dullness of understanding, lose their labor and their time...

read more

Chapter Two

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 19-24

BUT LET us suppose that the child now gradually increases in size, leaves the lap, and applies himself to learning in earnest. In this place, accordingly, must be considered the question whether it be more advantageous to confine the learner at home, and within the walls of a private house, or to commit him to the large numbers of a...

read more

Chapter Three

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 25-27

LET HIM that is skilled in teaching ascertain first of all, when a boy is entrusted to him, his ability and disposition. The chief symptom of ability in children is memory, of which the excellence is twofold: to receive with ease and to retain with fidelity. The next symptom is imitation; for that is an indication of a teachable disposition...

read more

Chapter Four

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 28-34

IN REGARD to the boy who has attained facility in reading and writing, the next object is instruction from the grammarians. Nor is it of importance whether I speak of the Greek or Latin grammarian, though I am inclined to think that the Greek should take the precedence. Both have the same method. This profession, then, distinguished as...

read more

Chapter Five

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 35-48

SINCE ALL language has three kinds of excellence, to be correct, perspicuous, and elegant (for to speak with propriety, which is its highest quality, most writers include under elegance), and the same number of faults, which are the opposites of the excellences just mentioned, let the grammarian consider well the rules for correctness which constitute the first part of grammar. These rules...

read more

Chapter Six

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 49-57

BY SPEAKERS, as well as writers, there are certain rules to be observed. Language is based on reason, antiquity, authority, and custom. It is analogy, and sometimes etymology, that affords the chief support to reason. A certain majesty, and, if I may so express myself, religion, graces the antique. Authority is commonly sought...

read more

Chapter Seven

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 58-63

SINCE WE have mentioned what rules are to be followed in speaking, we must now specify what are to be observed by writers. What the Greeks call orthography, we may call the art of writing correctly. This art does not consist in knowing of what letters every syllable is composed (for this study is beneath the profession even of the...

read more

Chapter Eight

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 64-68

READING REMAINs to be considered. Only practice can teach how a boy may know when to take breath, where to divide a verse, where the sense is concluded, where it begins, when the voice is to be raised or lowered, what is to be uttered with any particular inflection of sound, or what is to be pronounced with greater slowness or rapidity...

read more

Chapter Nine

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 69-70

WE HAVE now concluded two of the departments which this profession undertakes: the art of speaking correctly and the explanation of authors. They call the one methodice and the other historice. Let us add, however, to the business of the grammarian, some rudiments of the art of speaking, in which they may initiate their...

read more

Chapter Ten

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 71-80

THESE REMARKS I have made, as briefly as I could, upon grammar, not so as to examine and speak of everything, which would be an infinite task, but merely of the most essential points. I shall now add some concise observations on the other departments of study, in which I think that boys should be initiated before they are committed...

read more

Chapter Eleven

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 81-84

SOME TIME is also to be devoted to the actor, but only so far as the future orator requires the art of delivery. I do not wish the boy whom I educate for this pursuit, either to be broken to the shrillness of a woman's voice, or to repeat the tremulous tones of an old man's. Neither let him imitate the vices of the 2 drunkard, nor adapt himself...

read more

Chapter Twelve

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 85-88

IT IS a common question whether, supposing all these things are to be learned, they tan all be taught and acquired at the same time. Some deny that this is possible, as the mind must be confused and wearied by so many studies of different tendency for which neither the understanding, nor the body, nor time itself, can suffice. Even though...

Book II

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 89-89

read more

Chapter One

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 89-91

IT HAS been a prevalent custom (which daily gains more and more ground) for pupils to be sent to the teachers of eloquence- to the Latin teachers always, and to the Greeks some· times-at a more advanced age than reason requires. Of this practice there are two causes: first, that the rhetoricians, especially our own, have relinquis...

read more

Chapter Two

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 92-94

As soon therefore as a boy shall have attained such proficiency in his studies as to be able to comprehend what we have called the first precepts of the teachers of rhetoric, he must be put under the professors of that art. Of these professors the morals must first be ascertained. I proceed to treat this point in this part of my work, not because I do not think that the...

read more

Chapter Three

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 95-97

NOR IS the opinion of those to be passed in silence, who, even when they think boys fit for the professor of rhetoric, imagine that they are not at once to be consigned to the most eminent, but detain them for some time under inferior teachers. Their notion is that moderate ability in a master is not only better adapted for beginning instruction in art, but easier for comprehension and imitation,...

read more

Chapter Four

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 98-106

I SHALL now proceed to state what I conceive to be the first duties of rhetoricians in giving instruction to their pupils, putting off for a while the consideration of what is called, in common language, the "art of rhetoric" itself1 For to me it appears most eligible to commence with that to which the pupil has learned something similar under the grammarians. Of narrations (besides that which...

read more

Chapter Five

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 107-111

BUT OF the proper mode of declaiming I shall speak a little further on. Meanwhile, as we are treating of the first rudiments of rhetoric, I should not omit, I think, to observe how much the professor would contribute to the advancement of his pupils, if, just as the explanation of the poets is required from teachers of grammar, so he, in like manner, would exercise the pupils under his care...

read more

Chapter Six

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 112-113

THERE HAS been also a diversity of practice among teachers in the following respect. Some of them, not confining themselves to giving directions as to the division of any subject which they assigned their pupils for declamation, developed it more fully by speaking on it themselves, and amplified it not only with proofs but with appeals to the feelings. Others, giving merely the first outlines, spoke after...

read more

Chapter Seven

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 114-115

ONE CHANGE, I think, should certainly be made in what is customary with regard to the age of which we are speaking. Pupils should not be obliged to learn by heart what they have composed, and to repeat it, as is usual, on a certain day. This is a task which fathers are particularly fond of exacting, thinking that their children study only when they repeat frequent declamations. Actually, proficiency...

read more

Chapter Eight

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 116-118

IT IS generally, and not without reason, regarded as an excellent quality in a master to observe accurately the differences of ability in those whom he has undertaken to instruct, and to ascertain in what direction the nature of each particularly inclines him-for there is in talent an incredible variety, nor are the forms of the mind fewer than those of the body. This may be understood even from orators...

read more

Chapter Nine

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 119-119

HAVING SPOKEN thus fully concerning the duties of teachers, I give pupils, for the present, only this one admonition-that they are to love their tutors not less than their studies, and to regard them as parents, not indeed of their bodies, but of their minds. Such affection contributes greatly to improve- ment, for pupils, under its influence, will not only listen with pleasure, but will believe what...

read more

Chapter Ten

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 120-122

WHEN THE pupil has been well instructed and sufficiently exercised in these preliminary studies, which are not in themselves inconsiderable but are members and portions, as it were, of higher branches of learning, the time will have nearly arrived for entering on deliberative and judicial subjects. But before I proceed to speak of thos...

ON THE ADULT EDUCATION OF THE CITIZEN-ORATOR: BOOK TEN OF THE INSTITUTIO ORATORIA

BOOK X

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 125-125

read more

Chapter One

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 125-131

BUT THESE precepts of being eloquent, though necessary to be known, are not sufficient to produce the full power of eloquence unless there be united to them a certain Facility, which among the Greeks is called Hexis, "habit." I know that it is often asked whether more is contributed by writing, by reading, or by speaking. This...

read more

Chapter Two

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 132-138

FROM THESE authors, and others worthy to be read, must be acquired a stock of words, a variety of figures, and the art of composition. Our minds must be directed to the imitation of all their excellences, for it cannot be doubted that a great portion of art consists in imitation-for even though to invent was first in order of time and holds the first place in merit, it is nevertheless advantageous...

read more

Chapter Three

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 139-146

SucH, THEN, are the means of improvement to be derived from external sources. But of those which we must secure for ourselves, practice in writing, which is attended with the most labor, is attended also with the greatest advantage. Nor has Cicero without reason called the pen the best modeler and teacher of eloquence; and...

read more

Chapter Four

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 147-148

NEXT FOLLOWS correction, which is by far the most useful part of our studies-for it is believed, and not without reason, that the pen is not least serviceable when it is used to erase. Of correction there are three ways: to add, to take away, and to alter. In regard, however, to what is to be added or taken away, the decision is comparatively easy and simple; but to compress what is tumid, to raise...

read more

Chapter Five

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 149-151

THE NEXT point is, to decide on what we should employ ourselves when we write. It would be a superfluous labor, indeed, to detail what subjects there are for writing, and what should be studied first, or second, and so on in succession; for this has been done in my first book, in which I prescribed the order for the studies...

read more

Chapter Six

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 152-153

NEXT TO writing is meditation> which indeed derives strength from it, and is something between the labor of writing and the trial of our fortune in extemporary speaking. I know not whether it is not more frequently of use than either, for we cannot write everywhere and at all times-but there is abundance of time and room for thought. Meditation may in a very few hours embrace...

read more

Chapter Seven

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 154-160

BUT THE richest fruit of all our study, and the most ample recompense for the extent of our labor, is the faculty of speaking extempore; and he who has not succeeded in acquiring it will do well, in my opinion, to renounce the occupations of the forum, and devote his solitary talent of writing to some other employment; for it is...

Appendix: Editions and Translations of the Institutio oratoria

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 161-164

Suggestions for Further Reading

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 165-168

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 169-175

Editor Biographies

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 176-177

Back Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 178-178