Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. v

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Preface

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pp. vii-viii

I served in Afghanistan with the United States Army in 2002. I also served in the White House on the National Security Council staff as Director for Afghanistan from 2007 to 2009, during the last sixteen months of the Bush administration and first eight months of the Obama administration, on the staff of the Deputy National Security Advisor for Iraq and Afghanistan. I assisted with the...

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-20

The United States deployed an army of 45,000 soldiers to Cuba in 1898 to help insurgents rebel against the Spanish Empire. The war was short and the Cubans victorious, but Cuba was in ruins and appeared in need of American help. Faced with similar situations in Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, the McKinley administration freely annexed territory and imposed imperial rule, but Cuba...

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2. The Myth of Sequencing

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pp. 21-38

The dominant view in the theory and practice of state building is that there is a set sequence of efforts that state builders should follow to achieve success. According to this view, there is one reliable sequence of programs, policies, and efforts that, if followed, will successfully rebuild failed states. Advocates of sequencing have never agreed about which sequence is correct, but they agree that there is one. Three prominent versions of this view have appeared over...

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3. Statehood

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pp. 39-52

President Obama’s National Security Strategy declares that “failing states breed conflict and endanger regional and global security,” and that the United States’ “diplomacy and development capabilities must help prevent confl ct, spur economic growth, strengthen weak and failing states.” 1 Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates wrote in Foreign Affairs that “dealing with such fractured or failing states is, in many ways, the main security challenge of...

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4. State Failure

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pp. 53-69

There is little consensus about what constitutes a “failed state.” As a consequence, “state failure” as it is used in the literature is often an underspecified term. Helman and Ratner, whose 1992 article Saving Failed States set the research agenda for the field, did not offer a robust definition of a failed state beyond one which is “utterly incapable of sustaining itself” and “simply unable...

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5. State Building

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pp. 70-82

What is the right strategy for outside powers to turn violence into peace, injustice into justice, weak institutions into strong ones, poor countries into prosperous societies, and barbaric regimes into humane ones? Strategy is “the art of a commander-in-chief” and a “plan for successful action” in circumstances of “competition or confl ict,” according to the Oxford English Dictionary. According to the US Army, “ Strategy is the art and science of developing and employing...

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6. Strategies of State Building

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pp. 83-116

In this chapter I describe strategies of state building for each of the five dimensions of statehood. In each dimension, I describe strategies of state building in each of the three ascending levels of invasiveness: Observer strategy, Trainer strategy, and Administrator strategy. Using empirical data from a variety of cases of state building, I describe how state builders either succeeded or failed to apply a strategy...

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7. Five State-Building Case Studies

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pp. 117-174

In this chapter I test my theory against five cases of armed state building. I use the five dimensions of statehood to structure and focus each case. First, I describe the general background to the case. Second, I describe the degree of failure in each dimension of statehood. Third, I describe the state-building strategy employed (if any) in each dimension of statehood, and assess whether or...

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8. Conclusion

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pp. 175-204

In this chapter I summarize conclusions, sketch the scope conditions under which my conclusions hold, suggest avenues of further research, consider alternative hypotheses, offer policy recommendations, review the most recent state-building operations, and engage briefly with the discussion about the normative merits of armed state building...

Appendix A: Case Selection

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pp. 205-227

Appendix B: Measuring Success and Failure

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pp. 228-235

Bibliography

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pp. 236-249

Index

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pp. 250-257