Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Preface

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pp. vii-ix

THE organization of the central themes of this second volume in my life of Woodrow Wilson-the major stages in Wilson's own personal and political growth and the development of his most important domestic and foreign policies from November 1912 to November 1914 -took shape in an obvious way, for the most part chronologically. On the other hand, there were some matters-the contributions and policies of the members of the Wilson circle and American policies in the Central American and Caribbean...

Contents

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p. x

Illustrations

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p. xi

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I. The Aftermath of Victory

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pp. 1-28

IT WAS cloudy and unseasonably warm in Princeton on November 6, 1912, the day after the election that had given control of the federal government to Woodrow Wilson and his fellow Democrats.1 By the time Wilson rose at nine o'clock, "a little sleepy" after the tumultuous demonstration of the night before, the first callers had already arrived at his house on Cleveland Lane. All morning they came—students at the university, enjoying an unexpected..

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II. Farewell to New Jersey

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pp. 29-54

"I WILL stay on the job at Trenton until we put through the reforms that we have promised," Wilson announced on November 7, 1912. "I will get together with the party leaders and speak for them as well as for myself.''' All the superficial signs pointed toward a triumphal climax to Wilson's New Jersey career and an easy fulfillment of the state Democratic campaign pledges of 1912-...

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III. The President of the United States

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pp. 55-92

IT WAS hard for Wilson to leave Princeton, the village of his youth and manhood. There were memories too intimate to be told, chords of friendship and hatred that bound him to the place. "We are not as lighthearted as we might be," he wrote a few days before going to Washington. "Much as we have suffered in Princeton, deep as are the wounds our hearts have received here, it goes hard with us to leave it."1 It would have been easier not to...

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IV. The Wilson Circle: Personalities, Problems, and Policies

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pp. 93-144

THE men who moved in the Wilson circle during the years before the First World War were an incongruous group of progressives and conservatives, professional politicians and anl:lteurs, idealists and men trained in the school of reality, but in varying degree they all contributed to the successes and failures of the New Freedom. The most important member of the Wilson circle, next to the President himself, was Colonel Edward M. House. The friendship between Wilson and the Texan had...

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V. The President, Congress, and the Democratic Party

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pp. 145-176

FEW MEN have come to the presidency with bolder schemes of leadership or made greater contributions to the development of effective national government in the United States than Woodrow Wilson. Unusual circumstances for a time enabled him to demonstrate conclusively that the President has it within his power not only to be the chief spokesman of the American people...

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VI. The Battle for Tariff Reform

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pp. 177-198

THE crucial test of Wilson's leadership came during the early months of the New Freedom, when the new President led the Democrats in Congress in the first thoroughgoing downward revision of the tariff laws since 1846. So largely has the tariff been eliminated from presentday partisan debates that it would be easy for the reader to fail to understand the significance of the issue in Wilson's day. No public question was so perpetually...

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VII. The Federal Reserve Act

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pp. 199-240

WILSON'S triumph in the tariff fight came none too soon or completely, for by the time he signed the Underwood Act he was already deeply engaged in a more ambitious and difficult undertaking. It was his struggle to lead the Democratic party in the great enterprise of reconstructing the nation's banking and currency systems—the second step in the New Freedom's campaign...

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VIII. Reformers, Radicals, and the New Freedom

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pp. 241-276

IN SPITE of Wilson's victories on behalf of tariff and banking reform, there were already signs by the end of 1913 that the New Freedom was nearing the limits of achievement within its ideological boundaries, and that the President faced the prospect of having to confront many of his progressive friends in future battles over legislative policies. This anomaly of a progressive in conflict with reformers and radicals, this contradiction of the New Freedom...

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IX. The Beginnings of New Freedom Diplomacy, 1913-1914

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pp. 277-318

"IT WOULD be the irony of fate if my administration had to deal chiefly with foreign affairs," Wilson remarked to an old Princeton friend a few days before he went to Washington.1 Unfortunately, fate was not only ironical but in a sense also cruel, for the new President had to confront foreign problems of such magnitude as had not challenged the United States since the early nineteenth century. The years of the two Wilson administrations...

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X. First Stages of a Latin American Policy: Promises and Realities

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pp. 319-346

IN THEORY and practice, Europe and the Far East were of peripheral interest to the people of the United States during the years before the First World War. Ever since 1815 American foreign policy had been aimed at the protection of the western hemisphere from European encroachment, and after the Spanish-American war and the adoption of plans to build an isthmian canal the demands of national security had compelled a sharp focusing of this...

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XI. Mexico: The Background of Wilsonian Interference

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pp. 347-378

FOR nearly two years Mexico was the major cause of perplexity, in both domestic and foreign affairs, for the Wilson administration. The desire to help the Mexican people overthrow a military dictator and establish a constitutional government first prompted Wilson and Bryan to interfere in a developing Mexican civil war. This interference led in turn to unforeseen entanglements, the outgrowth of which was an attempt by the Washington leaders to impose...

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XII. Wilson and the Triumph of the Constitutionalists

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pp. 379-416

WHILE Wilson and Bryan threatened, Huerta went stubbornly on his way. He held the canvass scheduled for October 26,1913, and managed the election of a subservient Congress in familiar revolutionary fashion. The new legislature, in turn, declared the presidential election null and void, on the ground that not enough votes had been cast for a Chief Executive, and appointed Huerta President ad interim until new elections could be held in July...

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XIII. Antitrust Legislation: The Final Surge of New Freedom Reform

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pp. 417-444

ABSOKBING and important though they were, the Mexican troubles in no way diminished the energies of New Freedom reform at home. Although the President gave priority to the adoption of tariff and banking measures, the question of an antitrust program to fulfill the promises of the Democratic platform of 1912 arose during the early months of the new administration and remained persistently important until the program was completed in the...

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XIV. The Last Months of the New Freedom

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pp. 445-472

THE various groups in the political field campaigning for new advances along the progressive front—for a national child labor law and a federal rural credits system, for example—were pressing hard all during the months when Congress was debating the antitrust legislation. The movement toward new social and economic frontiers that these progressives demanded did not occur. Instead, a general reaction against further excursions into reform...

Sources and Works Cited

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pp. 473-488

Index

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pp. 489-504

Image Plates

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