Cover

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Title Page

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Contents

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p. vii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

North Carolina has been regarded as a bellwether state in race relations, school desegregation, school reform, and politics. Race and Education in North Carolina is a history of school desegregation in North Carolina, framed in a national context. It traces the evolution of case law and the interaction of law...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xv

I would like to thank Bettye MacPhail-Wilcox, Burton Beers, Barbara Parramore, and Bruce Beezer of North Carolina State University for their guidance. James Mulholland and James Crisp of North Carolina State, plus Allen Trelease and Robert Calhoon of the University of North Carolina–Greensboro...

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1 Education, Race, and Politics

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pp. 1-4

What is education? The eminent historian Bernard Bailyn defined education not only as pedagogy but “the entire process by which a culture transmits itself across the generations.”1 That is a grand vision, couched in the origins of the new American nation. The history of education, as formal schooling actually developed in the nineteenth and twentieth...

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2 Segregation: Separate and Unequal, through the 1950s

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pp. 5-29

North Carolina in the twentieth century enjoyed a reputation for moderation with regard to race relations. It was a relatively peaceful state. Other states in the South witnessed higher levels of intimidation, violence, and restrictions on freedom, as well as greater restrictions on educational opportunities for blacks. But all southern states required racial segregation in...

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3 North Carolina’s Response to Brown: The Pearsall Plan, 1952 to 1956

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pp. 30-57

In 1952, William B. Umstead succeeded Kerr Scott as governor. Umstead had served in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate.1 He voiced strong support for public schools in his inaugural address.2 Umstead’s political positions were more associated with the preservation of segregation than the...

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4 Tokenism: From 1956 to 1960

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pp. 58-81

The Pupil Assignment Act of 1955 placed sole authority for pupil assignment to schools with local boards of education. The second phase of North Carolina’s adaptation to the Brown decisions, the Pearsall Plan, allowed communities to vote to close schools in order to avoid desegregation and established a mechanism allowing parents to apply for tuition grants to...

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5 The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement: From 1960 to the Mid-1960s

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pp. 82-104

As the Hodges era closed, the Pupil Assignment Act and the other elements of the Pearsall Plan remained intact. The only portion of the plan that had been tested in the courts, however, was the Pupil Assignment Act. The tuition grants and local option school closing provisions had not been activated anywhere in the state. Pupil assignment and school desegregation continued...

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6 Early, Limited Desegregation: The Mid- to Late 1960s

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pp. 105-123

The Chapel Hill–Carrboro Board of Education pioneered rezoning to achieve system-wide desegregation on a voluntary basis in the early 1960s. But voluntary desegregation did not produce results elsewhere in the state. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 imparted dramatic impetus to school desegregation. As in the...

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7 System-wide Desegregation: Late 1960s to Late 1970s

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pp. 124-143

By the late 1960s, token desegregation had been carried out in school districts all over North Carolina. Boards of education in the state had not resisted desegregation. Their common response, however, utilized freedom-of-choice plans, which had become standard throughout the South. These plans placed the burden of desegregation on individual families, applying for...

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Epilogue: Reform and Resegregation

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pp. 144-148

By the early 1980s, North Carolina and the other southern states had achieved the most thorough levels of desegregation in the nation. In the 1980s–90s, North Carolina, for the first time, sought to ensure that equal educational opportunities were provided to all children. The end of the twentieth century thus...

Appendix 1. Key Office Holders

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pp. 149-151

Appendix 2. Members of the First and Second Pearsall Committees

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pp. 152-154

Notes

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pp. 155-194

Select Bibliography

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pp. 195-214

Index

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pp. 215-222