Cover

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Title page, Series page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-ix

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From the Series Editors

Anthony Heywood, David MacLaren McDonald, John W. Steinberg

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pp. xi-xvii

Since its inception in 2006 Russia’s Great War and Revolution, 1914–22 has taken shape through the collaboration of an international community of historians interested in the history of World War I’s understudied eastern theater. Timed to coincide with the centenary of the Great War—and, by extension, the revolutions it helped....

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xix-xx

The idea for this volume began in a conversation the three of us had in 2005 about the need to study the Russian Revolution by focusing on the provinces. Several institutions have helped to make this idea a reality. Wayne State University, the University of Nottingham, the Higher School of Economics (Moscow), the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and the University of Aberdeen all provided valuable research...

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Introduction: A Kaleidoscope of Revolutions

Aaron B. Retish, Liudmila G. Novikova, and Sarah Badcock

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pp. 1-15

This volume presents a series of essays that expand our understanding of the Russian Revolution through the detailed study of specific localities. Like the image in a kaleidoscope, Russia’s revolution was complex and multifaceted, an intricate juxtaposition of patterns and relationships that shifted and changed. While recognizing the...

Map of European Russia, 1914

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pp. 16-16

Grassroots Politics in Regional Revolutions

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The Problem of the “Local” in Revolutionary Russia:Moscow Province, 1914–22

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pp. 19-44

Several excellent studies of the decentralization of power in Russia at the provincial level during the revolutionary period have argued that “the periphery determines the center” within a nuanced analysis of the interplay between provincial and national forces.1 This relationship between the local and the center was complex. On the one hand, the powerful centrifugal forces pushing provinces apart and permitting localism to flourish during this period were aided by central policies...

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Revolution and the Creation of the Volost´ Zemstvo in Southeastern Russia (Spring–Fall 1917)

Sergei Liubichankovskii

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pp. 45-66

The township (volost´) zemstvo reform of 1917, which resulted in the emergence of grassroots rural self-governance, was one of the most difficult reforms undertaken by the Provisional Government. The introduction of the township zemstvo required tremendous efforts from the authorities, yet the results fell far short of expectations...

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The Collapse and Rebuilding of Grain Procurement Authority in Civil War Russia: The Case of Penza, 1919

Peter Fraunholtz

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pp. 67-86

The fate of Soviet Russia was determined to a great extent on the numerous battlefields and in peasant villages in grain-producing provinces during the course of 1919. From March 1919, when White Army offensives began in earnest, through their defeat in November 1919, the Bolshevik regime faced not only a military struggle for survival but also the potential loss of the 1919 harvest to enemy forces...

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Zemstvo, State, and Peasants in Arkhangel´sk Province, 1917–20

Liudmila G. Novikova

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pp. 87-108

The peasantry in prerevolutionary Russia has often been described as inherently backward, uncivilized, and anti-statist.1 And the Russian Revolution, according to many observers and historians, caused peasants to become even more insulated from society and hostile to the state.2 Indeed, after the collapse of traditional authority in 1917 peasants en masse severed their obligations to the state: they refused to provide...

A Myriad of National Revolutions

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War and Revolution in Ukraine: Kharkiv Province’s Peasants’Experiences of War, Revolution, and Occupation, 1914–18

Mark R. Baker

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pp. 111-142

This chapter will explore the years 1914–18 from the perspective of the peasants of Kharkiv province, an area now located in eastern Ukraine. These villagers’ experiences of war, revolution, and occupation differed considerably from those of workers in the capital cities or leading industrial centers; they even differed from those of the Russian-speaking peasants of rural Russia. In the latter case, though, the...

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National and Social Revolution in the Empire’s West: EstonianIndependence and the Russian Civil War, 1917–20

Karsten Brüggemann

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pp. 143-174

The Estonian-Soviet Peace Treaty of Tartu1 signed on 2 February 1920 symbolizes the revolutionary events that sealed the end of the Russian Empire. On the one hand, the treaty was the first diplomatic breakthrough achieved by the Soviet government, for which the Estonian capital Tallinn2 was consequently to prove a true “window...

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Smolensk’s Jews in War, Revolution, and Civil War

Michael C. Hickey

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pp. 175-214

In many regards, the experience of war, revolution, and civil war for Jews in the western Russian province of Smolensk paralleled that of the general population.1 Smolensk’s Jews faced tensions between integrative conceptions of citizenship and class-based politics typical of the revolutionary process in Russia as a whole. Jew...

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Bashkir Loyalists and the Question of Autonomy:Gabdulkhai Kurbangaliev in the Russian Revolution and Civil War

Daniel E. Schafer

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pp. 215-246

Studies of non-Russian peoples during the Russian Revolution and Civil War often focus on nationalist movements and leaders who sought autonomy or independence for their people. This focus is understandable given the centrality of the “national question” to the unfolding and outcome of the Civil War and the occasional success of nationalist and separatist activists in achieving either independent...

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The Russian Military in Finland and the Russian Revolution

Elena Dubrovskaia

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pp. 247-266

The relationship between the Russian central government and the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland underwent a dramatic transformation during the First World War and the Russian Revolution. The outbreak of war amplified the existing conflict over competing interests between central and local powers in Finland, while total mobilization resulted in increased state intervention in local matters...

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The Unemployed Movement in Odessa in 1917:Social and National Revolutions Between Petrograd and Kiev

Tanja Penter

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pp. 267-296

This chapter seeks to highlight the significance of local factors on the peripheries using the example of Odessa, far away from the revolutionary centers of Petrograd and Kiev. Odessa, a Black Sea port and commercial metropolis that is today located in Ukraine, was the fourth-largest city in the Russian Empire after Petrograd, Moscow, and Kiev at the beginning of the 20th century. To date, the image of the...

Social Revolutions in the Peripheries

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The Izhevsk Revolt of 1918: The Fateful Clash of Revolutionary Coalitions, Paramilitarism, and Bolshevik Power

Aaron B. Retish

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pp. 299-322

This is a tale of how workers and soldiers in the industrial city of Izhevsk fought for soviet power in the fall of 1917 only to revolt against Bolshevism a year later in what would become the largest and most significant uprising of its kind to date against the Soviet regime. At its height, in September 1918, the Izhevsk revolt established its own government—the Prikomuch regime— and controlled thirteen to fourteen...

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Voronezh: Revolutionary Violence and the Bolshevik Victory

Stefan Karsch

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pp. 323-354

Researchers have been well aware for some time how and why the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) with whom they were allied were able to take power in Russia’s two most important cities in 1917. In Petrograd, they succeeded in seizing political power without a great deal of effort because it was no longer being seriously defended. In Moscow, by contrast, much bloodier and more protracted fighting took place. The struggle for power did not unfold in the same way even...

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Structures and Practices of Power:1917 in Nizhegorod and Kazan´ Provinces

Sarah Badcock

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pp. 355-382

The February Revolution initiated a profound reshaping of power structures at national, regional, and local levels. This chapter explores the structures of power that developed in the provinces of Nizhegorod and Kazan´ during 1917, and explores the relationships that evolved between them. Formal or institutionalized power was held...

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Echoes of the International across the Historiographies

Donald J. Raleigh

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pp. 383-402

Impressively researched and varied in the questions their authors raise, the essays composing this anniversary volume deepen our understanding of the diverse iterations of the Russian Revolution and Civil War in the empire’s provinces and borderlands. Equally important, the collection also reveals, even symbolizes...

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 403-404