Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. vii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xv

This book is an intellectual history of the New- York Tribune during the Civil War era. The Tribune of that period was in many ways a unique institution. It had a mass audience, with the largest national circulation of any newspaper in the mid-nineteenth-century United States. But it was also an institution that published many of the leading minds of the age. It was part of a surge of penny papers that...

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A People’s Newspaper

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pp. 1-17

In The Souls of Black Folk, W. E. B. DuBois wrote that the “problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the colorline.”1 The problem of the nineteenth century was the “labor question,” what nineteenth-century socialists referred to as the “organization of labor,” and it was at the heart of the seemingly disparate histories of race and class, of North and South, of rural and urban life, and...

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1 The Emancipation of Labor

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pp. 18-57

Reflecting on the first decade of the Tribune’s existence, Horace Greeley remarked that his main objective as a reformer and public intellectual was to be “a mediator, an interpreter, a reconciler, between Conservatism and Radicalism.”1> For Greeley, the 1840s were a formative period intellectually, and during that...

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2 Transcendental Cultural Democracy

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pp. 58-81

Henry Raymond’s assault on socialist morality unsettled Greeley. Raymond had introduced a line of attack that would contribute, along with the failure of the communities themselves, to the diminished scale that American socialism would take from 1848 onward. It would also effectively separate the labor question...

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3 The French Revolution of 1848 and the Radicalization of the Tribune

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pp. 82-107

The final years of the 1840s were dark times for American Fourierism. The movement had spread like a wildfire but after just four years the “Age of Fourier” was coming to a close. Critics mocked the communitarians as “four-year-ites.” Phalanxes began to fail as early as 1845. In the spring of 1846, Brook Farm, which had only recently...

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4 Marriage, Family, and the Socioeconomic Order

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pp. 108-125

During the 1840s, American socialism was unified behind a brand of Fourierism that was both practical and comprehensive. Structurally, Fourierism aimed to recalibrate the structural inequalities in the relationship between capital and labor, but it was also based on a psychological foundation—the passions—and committed to a broad agenda of cultural reform. Libraries, lectures, music, and even communal...

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5 Land Reform, Pragmatic Socialism, and the Rise of the Republican Party

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pp. 126-164

In the spring of 1846, Horace Greeley exulted that a political revolution was imminent. It would “dissolve and recombine,” he hoped, the Jacksonian party system “so that the old Hunker Whigs and Loco-Focos shall be put in one file and liberal Progressive Whigs and Democrats go together.” “The basis of union of the True...

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6 The Civil War and the Dilemmaof Free Labor

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pp. 165-211

For two decades, Greeley had called for economic reforms that would democratize property, diffuse the benefits of technology and specialization, and protect labor from the ravages of competition with chattel and foreign labor. Most of all, he encouraged workers to form cooperative associations in response to the increasing...

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7Liberal Ambiguities

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pp. 212-242

In May 1872, a diverse collection of reformers, journalists, and disaffected Republicans met in Cincinnati to consolidate the various local and state efforts to overturn the rule of the regular Republican Party and to defeat “Grantism,” the pejorative label dissatisfied reformers used to describe the corrupt, patronage-ridden administration...

Notes

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pp. 243-284

Bibliography

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pp. 285-304

Index

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pp. 305-312