Cover

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Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright

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Ε. HARRIS HARBISON

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pp. v-ix

Contents

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pp. xi-xii

Part 1: Faith, Reason, and the World of Action

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France: the Holy Land, the Chosen People, and the Most Christian King

Joseph R. Strayer,

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pp. 3-16

TWO turning points are obvious in the development of the modern state in Western Europe. The first was a shift in loyalties. As long as loyalties (and obedience) were hopelessly divided between ecclesiastical and secular authorities, and as long as the fraction of loyalty which went to secular authority was still further divided among local lords, provincial...

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The Renaissance Monarchy as seen by Erasmus, More, Seyssel, and Machiavelli

J. Russell Major

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pp. 17-31

FOR a long time it was commonplace to find the origins of the modern state in the "New Monarchies" of the Renaissance. It was argued that the Renaissance monarchs, aided by a rising middle class and the growth of nationalism, created absolute, centralized states in which they governed with the aid of large bureaucracies and in which they stifled...

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A Matter of Conscience

Lacey Baldwin Smith

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pp. 32-51

"CONSCIENCE," so the medieval saying goes, "is a pretty theory to carry to church, but he that pursueth it in fair market or shop may die a beggar." The advice may be sound business, but the rule proved inadequate when Henry VIII carried conscience into every capital,,,

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James V and the Scottish Church, 1528-1542

J. Wilson Ferguson

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pp. 52-76

JAMES V has long had an ambiguous reputation among historians of the Scottish Reformation. Catholic commentators of the 1560's saw him as a man who had supported the old faith against foreign and domestic enemies; but they also considered that royal control and exploitation left the Church...

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Utopia and Geneva

J. H. Hexter

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pp. 77-89

LIKE many of the noblest men of the early decades of the sixteenth century, Thomas More was deeply concerned with the problem of bringing about a fundamental spiritual change in Europe. But in Utopia he did not suggest a strategy for achieving that change. Rather, he revealed two...

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Religion and Politics in the Thought of Gasparo Contarini

Felix Gilbert

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pp. 90-116

STEPPING from the gates of his palace1 in Venice, Gasparo Contarini was immediately drawn into the teeming life of the city in whose triumphant history his ancestors had played a leading part since earliest times. But from the rear of his palace Contarini could see across the...

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Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington: a Christian Laird in the Age of Reformation

Maurice Lee, Jr., Rutgers

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pp. 117-132

THE name of Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington has echoed very faintly down the corridors of time for two reasons. He is remembered as a poet and, more importantly, as a collector and preserver of the poetry of others. Sir Richard was one of the first of Scotland's antiquaries, and...

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The Puritans and the Convocation of 1563

A. J. Carlson

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pp. 133-153

THE history of the Convocation of 1563 has never been written. Nor in all likelihood will the full story of the first important meeting of Elizabethan clergy after the 1559 settlement ever be told. The reasons are many. Some historians still have trouble with its date, confusing old style 1562 with new style 1563.1 Students of Anglican doctrine have examined every...

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Reform and Counter-Reform: the Case of the Spanish Heretics

Paul J. Hauben

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pp. 154-168

THERE is much to recommend the view that the Catholic Reform and the Counter-Reformation of the sixteenth century were two parts—distinct yet frequently overlapping, even in individual careers1—of a broad Catholic Revival.2 Nevertheless, when one looks at Spanish...

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Francis Bacon and the Reform of Society

Theodore K. Rabb

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pp. 169-194

CURRENT studies of seventeenth-century England commonly portray Francis Bacon as a versatile and far-sighted proponent of reform in many of his country's institutions. His work is pictured as a landmark in the development of radically new ideas, and as a foretaste and inspiration of revolutionary thought. Two of today's most prominent Stuart historians,...

Part 2: Christians, Scholars, and the World of Thought

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The Iconography of Temperantia and the Virtuousness of Technology

Lynn White, jr.

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pp. 197-219

THE academic "Thirty Years War" which started in 1905 with the publication of Max Weber's Die protestantische Ethi\ und der Geist des Kapitalismus1 ended in an armistice of exhaustion after the appearance of Amintore Fanfani's Cattolicesimo e protestantesimo nella formazione storiea del capitalismo.2 Save for historiographic studies,3 not mu...

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Florence and its University, 1348-1434

Gene A. Brucker

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pp. 220-236

ON 29 August 1348 the Florentine Signoria authorized the establishment of a studium generale "in civil and canon law, in medicine, in philosophy and the other sciences." Members of this Signoria, the survivors of the Black Death, were preoccupied with the immediate problems of restoring life and order to a city which had lost between one-third and one-...

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The Teaching of Argyropulos and the Rhetoric of the First Humanists

Jerrold E. Seigel

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pp. 237-260

ONE of the most influential of the Byzantines who settled in Italy during the fifteenth century was Joannes Argyropulos. More a philosopher than a teacher of Greek, Argyropulos helped to shape the intellectual interests of Florentines in the later Quattrocento. His own first...

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Talent and Vocation in Humanist and Protestant Thought

Richard M. Douglas

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pp. 261-298

THERE is a remarkable difference between the language which Erasmus used in describing the selection of his career as a scholar and the vocabulary in which Calvin recalled his vocation to the ministry at Geneva. Erasmus described the deliberate human choice of a particular way of life (genus vitae) and the private determination of a career consistent...

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Erasmus and Alberto Pio, Prince of Carpi

Myron P. Gilmore

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pp. 299-318

AMONG the polemics which soured the last years of Erasmus, none finally drove him to more bitter replies than the attack on him by Alberto Pio, Prince of Carpi. For many of his opponents, like Noel Beda and the Spanish monks, Erasmus had nothing but contempt; they were ignorant of "bonae litterae," and their effusions were the product of...

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Erasmus and the Reformers on Non-Christian Religions and Salus Extra Ecclesiam

George Huntston Williams

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pp. 319-370

ALTHOUGH the religious leaders of the Age of Reformation were seldom directly concerned with the significance of non- Christian religions, the problem at times claimed their attention in connection, especially, with the threat presented by the Ottoman Turks or with the question of the salvation of virtuous pagans, raised with urgency by both the...

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Inflation and Witchcraft: the Case of Jean Bodin

E. William Monter

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pp. 371-389

MANY problems becloud the scholarly evaluation of Jean Bodin, who was surely one of the finest and most original thinkers of the late sixteenth century. He has always been something of a puzzle to subsequent generations. The opinion that Bodin's genius displayed...

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History and Politics: the Controversy over the Sale of Offices in Early Seventeenth-Century France

Davis Bitton

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pp. 390-403

NOT until the beginning of the seventeenth century did the sale of offices become the subject of a full-blown public controversy in France. Venalite had been practiced long before this, of course, and had been frequently denounced. But there had been no genuine controversy....

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Reason and Grace: Christian Epistemology in Dante, Langland, and Milton

Roland Mushat Frye

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pp. 404-422

THE great mainstream of Christian thought has sought to employ reason to the full extent of its natural usefulness without overextending it and giving it authority beyond the bounds of its nature. Christianity has also maintained the supremacy of divine revelation which does not obliterate and destroy reason. The consensus has been that within the...

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John Locke and the New Logic

Wilbur Samuel Howell,

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pp. 423-452

THE lasting significance of John Locke's greatest work, An Essay concerning Human Understanding, lies in its having •outlined more influentially than any previous work the modern method by which knowledge is to be sought, validated, and understood. It did not set forth a system of beliefs that people should accept in regard to the substance....

INDEX

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pp. 453-463

Image Plates

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