Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

Nancy Bernkopf Tucker patiently guided me through a thousand different iterations of this project with both good humor and tough questions. My only regret is that she never got to see the final version. I hope it lives up to her famously high standards, though any failures in this respect are...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-10

On February 25, 1943, the RMS Empress of Scotland sailed into New York Harbor. The ocean liner had been pressed into wartime service, its luxurious accommodations refitted to ferry fresh troops to the front lines in Europe and North Africa. The urgencies of war usually forced a quick...

Part I: Migration Diplomacy at War

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1. Unequal Allies: Renegotiating Exclusions

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pp. 13-41

Soong May-ling (Song Meiling), wife of Chiang Kai-shek and arguably the most famous Chinese migrant to the United States in the twentieth century, made an offi cial visit to Washington in 1943. Soong spent a decade in her youth studying in the United States, graduating from Wellesley...

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2. The Diaspora Goes to War: Human Capital and China’s Defense

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pp. 42-68

In the early 1940s, when the United States was debating whether to end its exclusionary laws preventing Chinese immigration to the United States, an offi cial of the Republic of China suggested that there would be no danger in doing so because the Chinese as a whole were “not a migratory...

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3. A Fight on All Fronts: The Chinese Civil War, Restored Migration, and Emigration as National Policy

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pp. 69-96

China endured four years of civil war on the heels of its eight-year struggle against Japan, but these were years of heavy distraction in Washington. The Cold War was breaking out in Europe as the World War II alliance gave way to increasing mutual suspicion between the United States and the Soviet...

Part II: Migrant Cold Warriors

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4. Chinese Migrants as Cold Warriors: Immigration and Deportation in the 1950s

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pp. 99-127

The fracturing of China into two rival governments pursuing differing policies in the name of finally winning their civil war while fighting the Cold War wreaked havoc on political goals but also complicated individual lives. Chinese migrants found themselves caught between opposing governments...

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5. Remitting to the Enemy: Transnational Family Finances and Foreign Policy

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pp. 128-153

Decades of Chinese migration, coupled with restrictive immigration laws, had helped to create transnational families. Transnational families maintained transnational financial ties. Established overseas Chinese communities had a long tradition of sending remittances home to families left behind in...

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6. Crossing the Bamboo Curtain: Using Refugee Policy to Support Free China

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pp. 154-184

On June 6, 1950, twenty-three-year-old Zhang Shijie helped a Cantonese egg merchant carry his wares across the Lo Wu border crossing into Hong Kong, sneaking past stern British border police and arriving in the colony as a refugee. Around the same time, thirty-two-year-old Hao Cihang paid...

Part III: Shifting Exclusions

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7. Cold War Hostages: Repatriation Policy and the Sino-American Ambassadorial Talks

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pp. 187-214

Though the United States and Nationalist China cooperated successfully in the early Cold War, by the mid-1950s it had grown clear that the United States could not afford to cut out Communist China completely. Certainly the United States and the PRC had both been involved alongside the Korean...

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8. Visa Diplomacy: The Taiwan Independence Movement and Changing U.S.-Chinese Relations

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pp. 215-237

In 1961, the Kennedy administration intervened in a State Department decision and refused to give Taiwan independence activist Thomas Liao (Liao Wenyi) a visa. In 1970, the Nixon administration ignored the Liao precedent and allowed Taiwanese dissident Peng Ming-min (Peng Mingmin)...

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Conclusion: Coming in from the Cold

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pp. 238-252

Nationalist China’s increasing insecurity about American policy and support in the 1960s stemmed not only from concerns over the rise of the Taiwan independence movement but also from constantly changing conditions in Asia. Increasing U.S. commitments to South Vietnam, especially...

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Note on Sources

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pp. 253-256

As a diplomatic history of migration policy, this book makes particular use of governmental and especially foreign policy records as primary sources, while attempting to stay grounded in the secondary literature on Chinese America. The primary research involved libraries and archives under four...

Notes

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pp. 257-302

Index

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pp. 303-308