Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Figures

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p. ix

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Preface

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pp. xi-xvi

The discipline of anthropology has tried, at least in its western branch, to concern itself with man as a whole, as a biological, ecological, cultural, social being, to be seen throughout the entire course of his evolution and history. In this unity there has been both strength and weakness. Certainly of benefit is the fact that it recalls its practitioners' attention...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xviii

There are two reasons I have been somewhat nervous about candidly listing people to whom I am aware of indebtedness. The first is that it is clear that one cannot remember all the influences, and the omission of names is both misleading and unfair to some who may have been of considerable importance. The second is that on one occasion when I did list...

Part One. The Nature of Power

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1. Introduction

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pp. 3-9

Power is a subject common to all the social sciences. The term has received the greatest attention from political scientists and sociologists, many of the former holding that it is the central subject of their discipline, although despairing of bringing it under intellectual harness. Perhaps no other subject...

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2. Basic Elements

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pp. 9-20

Power is that aspect of social relations that marks the relative equality of the actors or operating units; it is derived from therelative control by each actor or unit over elements of the environment of concern to the participants. It is therefore a socio-psychological phenomenon, whereas control is a physical phenomenon. The process of power is readily identifiable in the subhuman past. Power lies in the dominance,,,

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3. Additional Considerations

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pp. 20-52

Power structure refers to any systemic set of relationships through which actors or parties manifest their relative concerns about control over the environment and power over their fellow men. The following will deal with some of the more central characteristics of these relations: (A) Power and Control...

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4. The Variety of Operating Units

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pp. 52-67

In considering the structure of power in the world about us, we traditionally deal with varieties of social entities: individual human beings, family groups, voluntary associations, business corporations, nation-states, etc. Social scientists have from time to time concocted various analytical concepts for these units, but usually these have been restricted to...

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5. Power Domains and Levels

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pp. 68-94

The devices that can be used for mapping a power domain are the operating units that include the actors, and the domains and levels of articulation that these operating units form among themselves. In describing a structure of power, we are as much concerned with the internal organization of the units as we are with their interrelations. The internal structure...

Part Two. Energetic and Mentalistic Structures

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6. A Note on Structure, Mind and Matter, and Culture

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pp. 97-109

The first part of this essay was devoted principally to conceptual matters, in an attempt to provide basic concepts that are necessary in order to exploit the concept of control over energy for social analysis. It was not possible to entirely avoid theory in that discussion, nor was there any particular value in trying to do so. The process of concentration of power...

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7. The Energetic

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pp. 109-153

The anthropological study of energy processes, or energetics, is based on the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics.9 The First Law states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but that it can change its form. The Second Law is more difficult to state, particularly in a form relevant to the present context, but essentially holds that in making its...

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8. The Mentalistic

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pp. 153-196

Of the many issues that distinguish "natural" and "social" sciences, certainly one of the most central has been the use of mentalistic variables. There is no doubt that their gradual elimination from physics and biology was the mark of the paradoxical success of mind over matter. In the social sciences, however, they not only remain but in many areas continue central to an entire apparatus. Power, especially...

Part Three. A Model of the Evolution of Power

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9. The Framework

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pp. 199-217

Much of the recent theoretical and conceptual modeling of the evolution of society has been carried out by a coordinate unit of professional anthropologists, most of whom have, in one capacity or another, been connected with the University of Michigan or Columbia University. Many were...

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10. Levels of Integration

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pp. 217-278

The model of the evolution of power (see Fig. 16) is constructed with five levels of integration, preceded by two protolevels and capped by an imaginary, futuristic cosmic system for intra- or interplanetary space fans. The number of levels of integration, as has been observed, are products of convenience for handling the material; if one were to examine...

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11. Replicative Processes

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pp. 278-300

In Part Two of this essay we explored some aspects of two phases of our inquiry, the energetic and the mentalistic, I want now to examine one final manner in which these seem to be conjoined within the evolutionary and historical processes of the proposed model. Whether seen deductively from Lotka's principle and the Second Law of Thermodynamics, or empirically by an overview of the entire range of the development of the human species, one fact that seems indisputable in human...

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12. Social Power and the Future

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pp. 301-316

The general thesis of this essay has been that man's particular relation to the environment is fundamentally similar to that of any other species, in that it is a continuing effort to exercise sufficient control to extract energy from the environment. Particularly typical of man, however, is his cultural mode of behavior, which leads him to seek this security of control through the...

Works Cited

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pp. 317-338

Index

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pp. 339-353