Cover

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Title page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. vii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xiv

The collaboration between the two authors, without which this study would have been impossible, began some twenty years ago when we were both graduate students in anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Cole was planning to do his dissertation field research in 'Unayzah, the hometown...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

The authors gratefully acknowledge the American University in Cairo, which provided them with sabbatical leaves and grants for the academic year 1986-87. We also express our appreciation to the Population Council for a Middle East Research Award, which covered part of the expenses of the field research, and to the Ford Foundation for individual grants that contributed to...

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Introduction: The Study and Its Setting

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pp. 1-12

Two types of societal change, transformation and development, provide the framework within which data for this study were collected and are analyzed in this book. By "transformation" we refer to a change in the structure of the society that implies a fundamental change in the society's economic basis, in the forms and compositions of its groupings, and in the rules...

Part One. Political Autonomy, Domestically Organized Production, and Mercantile Trade

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1. The Autonomous Amirate

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pp. 15-31

This chapter presents the historical background and regional contexts which are necessary for understanding the political and economic structure of 'Unayzah in the past and, to an extent, even in the present. It describes the main characteristics of 'Unayzah as an autonomous amirate until 1904. It also describes and analyzes the division of labor and organization of production...

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2. The Old Agriculture

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pp. 32-53

The settlements that eventually evolved to form the city of 'Unayzah based their livelihood on agriculture. Throughout the centuries, agriculture continued to provide the productive basis of the economy. The occupational category of fallah until about twenty years ago was one of the city's most important...

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3. Craft Production and the Old Market

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pp. 54-66

The agricultural productive base of 'Unayzah's economy in the past was supplemented by local craft production and by the pastoral production of the Bedouin. The articulation of these three bases was organized by the local market. Together, the three productive bases provided the surplus which allowed for the development of long-distance trade, which made...

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4. Caravans and Long-Distance Trade

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pp. 67-82

The discussion so far has concentrated on activities that took place in 'Unayzah. However, work often took men from 'Unayzah on long and sometimes dangerous journeys within the peninsula to Bedouin camps, the Yemen, cities of the Hijaz, and ports on the Arabian Gulf. They also went to Iraq, greater Syria, Egypt, Bahrain, and India. Some worked in camel transport...

Part Two. Provincial City within a New State and the Development of Capitalist Social Formations

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5. Development of the New State and Education

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pp. 85-97

The data presented in Part One specifically refer to that which existed before the present state began to be established and before the economy of the region was transformed during the present century. For hundreds of years this old 'Unayzah had existed as a complex system in which domestically organized production, mercantile trade, and political autonomy predominated...

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6. Occupational Change and New Institutions

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pp. 98-116

Concomitant with the development of the new state and of modern education, new technology and infrastructure were introduced. Wage labor, salaried employment, and entrepreneurship came to predominate in the organization of work both in 'Unayzah and other places in the new country. A national currency, the Sacudi riyal, replaced the Maria Theresa dollar and other...

Part Three. Economic Boom and Transformation

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7. The Economic Boom, Expatriates, and Local Development

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pp. 119-139

During a period of about a decade in the latter part of the 1970s and early 1980s, dramatic changes quite unlike those usually experienced in the process of development occurred in cUnayzah. In its 1969—70 fiscal year, the Saudi Arabian state received 5.7 billion riyals as revenue from oil and other sources (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1984). Just over a decade later, in 1981...

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8. The Market Today

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pp. 140-161

The old suq reflected the central role that 'Unayzah played in exchange and distribution in both the local region and the wider area. Today, the suq reflects the city's provincial status and the peripheral role it has come to play in the new national economy. Much of the new agricultural production bypasses the local suq. Local merchants seldom import directly from...

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9. The New Agriculture

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pp. 162-184

The popular image of Saudi Arabia in both the Middle East and the West is of a land of deserts and oil. However, the vast majority of the population were farmers, herders, or fisherfolk. Furthermore, no existing evidence indicates significant import in the past of basic food crops into the region. What was imported were such things as coffee, tea, sugar, cardamom, and...

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10. Salaried Employment and Its Social Impact

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pp. 185-207

One evening a small group of men from 'Unayzah were sitting around the coffee hearth of a majlis in one of the basatin. An Egyptian agricultural laborer was sitting with them, and the talk turned to the issue of work. Someone asked the Egyptian for his opinion about Saudi Arabians working. He said, "The old ones know all about work, and they used to do everything. But...

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11. Changing Patterns of Social Life

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pp. 208-231

Since the beginning of the tufrah, change in 'Unayzah has included a new and expanded agriculture, a major increase in salaried employment among the local people, and the influx of expatriate laborers. Change has also included the building of a new town, mainly on land that was in the desert or covered...

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12. Analysis and Conclusion

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pp. 232-248

Various conclusions drawn from this case study bear reiteration and further analysis. The first set of conclusions relates to the complex structure of Arabia prior to the initiation of developmental change. The second set addresses change associated with development, while the third set leads to an analysis of...

Glossary of Arabic Terms

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pp. 249-252

Bibliography

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pp. 253-260

Index

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pp. 261-266