Comparative Studies in Special Education
Publication Year: 1994
Published by: Gallaudet University Press
Comparative Studies in Special Education is an attempt to fill a void in the literature available to students and scholars in both special education and comparative education. That void is the result of the direction scholarship in education has taken recently. Over the last two decades, academic work in almost all areas has exhibited a trend toward...
The editors are indebted to many individuals. First are our contributors, whose timely and insightful manuscripts constitute the essence of this book. We particularly wish to acknowledge the assistance and hard work of Ms. Barbara Krushel, who typed many drafts of the text. Her competence, attention to detail, positive suggestions, and unfailing good cheer and optimism ensured the successful completion...
In the most general terms, special education is education individualized and adjusted to accommodate the unique learning needs of students who are, in some domain of functioning, above or below what is considered normal in their culture and social context. Areas of need include impairments in the physical, intellectual, communication, and social aspects...
Part I: Limited Special Education
For disabled persons in many countries special education, training, and rehabilitation remain an elusive dream. This is not necessarily to say that commitment is lacking within political and educational sectors, but it does say that economic, social, and political difficulties in some regions of the world are so overwhelming that they relegate special education to the status...
1. South Africa
In most developing countries resource limitations have generally resulted in the demand for basic education taking precedence over provision for special educational needs. The irony in this is that the incidence of disability, and therefore of special educational need, in such contexts is estimated to be considerably higher than in more developed contexts (Wiesinger-Ferris 1989). Thus, social and educational disadvantage are reproduced in...
2. Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and is north of Australia, from which it gained independence in 1975. Papua New Guinea has a population of about 3.6 million, about 85 percent of whom live in traditional communities. In 1989 there were 11,700 people for every physician. The infant mortality rate was estimated...
Senegal is situated in the extreme west of Africa, It has an area of 201,400 square kilometers and a population of 5,353,266. Approximately 80 percent of Senegalese live in rural areas, practice agriculture, and are of the Islamic faith. The population is made up of diverse ethnic groups ranging from the Sahelian to the black African, This gives the country a rich and...
4. West Bank and Gaza Strip
Palestine is a very small country. In the 1948 war, 75 percent of its land was occupied by Israelis. The West Bank and Gaza Strip, which is even less than the remaining 25 percent, was occupied in the 1967 war. Currently it is estimated that more than one and one-half million Palestinians live under Israeli occupation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip alone. More than two...
Part II: Emerging Special Education
Four striking characteristics of the countries represented in part II are perhaps readily apparent. First, these are populous nations. In combination, they are home to the majority of the world's population. Second, these nations are extremely diverse regions characterized by marked geographic and ethnic differences. Third, some 80 percent of the world's people with...
Nigeria gained its independence from Britain in October 1960. Since independence, Nigeria has been ruled by eight different governments-six military and two constitutionally elected. The current military government is setting the stage for the third constitutionally elected civilian government. Today, Nigeria has twenty-one states and more than 120 million...
6. Islamic Republic of Iran
In the name of God. In 1991, the Islamic Republic of Iran had a population of fifty-eight million with a 3.2 percent annual rate of growth, living in an area of 1,648,195 square kilometers. Nearly one-half of the population lives in the rural areas in more than sixty thousand villages. The age breakdown demonstrates that the majority of the population is very young; close to 64 percent is...
To understand the Brazilian special education system, one has to insert it into the general education system and, above all, into the social context ill which it develops. Today, there are about 14.5 to 15 million people with disabilities in Brazil, that is, 10 percent of the country's population. The occurrence of disability is not homogeneous in all society's sectors. The...
Indonesia consists of 13,677 islands curved across the Indian Ocean from Borneo to the north of Australia. Six thousand of the islands are inhabited although in parts there are minimal transportation facilities, especially to the smaller and more remote islands. As one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world, Indonesia has almost three hundred...
In Egypt, the state holds a conviction that education of the handicapped is one of its duties, and does not disregard these unlucky people. It extends to them the kind of care that conforms with their specific type of handicap be it physical, social, or psychological. In Egypt, special education institutions are an integrated part of the...
In Pakistan, the term handicapped denotes those who are mentally retarded and physically handicapped; it includes those who are blind, orthopedically disabled, and deaf. The observance of 1981 as the International Year of the Disabled (IYD) under UN Resolution was a landmark in the history of Pakistan for the care, prevention, welfare, education, training, and...
According to China's nationwide census in 1987, there were 307.5 million people from birth to age fourteen, accounting for 28.7 percent of the total population. There were 672 million ages fifteen to fifty-nine, for 62.8 percent of the population, and 91 million over sixty, for 8.5 percent. According to the same nationwide census, 37.1 percent of the total population in...
Special education, the world over, is a relatively recent phenomenon (Kirk 1970). Sporadic attempts at schooling for the blind, the deaf, and the mentally retarded can be traced back even to the early 1800s. These earlier attempts to educate and rehabilitate the physically and mentally handicapped were founded more on theological and charitable lines. Most of the work in...
Uruguay is located on the eastern coast of South America by the Atlantic Ocean. The Uruguayan territory covers an area of 176,215 square kilometers, with many rivers and minor water courses, smooth plains, and prairies and no deserts, jungles, or big mountains. Several communication roads allow adequate accessibility to and from practically all the geographic points...
Part III: Segregated Special Education
The countries in our part III-Japan, Taiwan, Russia, Czechoslovakia, and Hong Kong-are grouped together on a number of foundational principles. First, each nation has well-established and concrete enabling legislation and implementation policies focusing on persons with special needs. Second, their commitment to the provision of services for their...
Special education in Japan has about 115 years of history, dating back to 1878 when pioneering education for blind and deaf children was started. Special education for children with mental retardation, motor handicaps, and chronic disease was launched on a national scale after World War II, although some sporadic attempts...
The evolution of special education in Taiwan can be divided into four stages. The first stage, from 1949 to 1960, concentrated on only a small number of schools for the deaf and the blind. In the second stage, from 1961 to 1970, the government began experimental classes for mildly retarded children, the physically handicapped, and the hearing impaired. Visually...
Prevalence of Developmental Disabilities Of the existing special education situation in Russia, we may give only approximate indices of the school-age developmental disabilities prevalence. Through the present in Russia, statistics on developmental disabilities are not available. Physicians from the infantile health care system (children's...
Since the end of World War II, the growth of special education in Czechoslovakia has been phenomenal. The number of students served in the past forty-five years has increased to more than twelve times the original number. Forty years of Marxist-Leninist educational ideas left Czechoslovakia with a residue of concepts that focused on individual defects in special...
18. Hong Kong
The territory of Hong Kong comprises the island of Hong Kong, a number of other islands, and part of the Chinese mainland. The island of Hong Kong became a British colony in 1842. The territory was subsequently enlarged by addition of sections of the mainland and neighboring islands. The greatest enlargement occurred in 1898 when colonial authorities...
Part IV: Approaching Integration
The commonality in philosophy and service provision among the nations found in part IV is their growing adherence to models that stress the accommodation of increasing numbers of children with disabilities within the regular school system. Each of these nations originally founded their special education within institutional settings. Their philosophy today stresses...
At the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Jewish population in Palestine counted about sixty thousand inhabitants. The great majority of Jewish children were enrolled in schools established in prestate educational frameworks and divided into distinct branches according to various social, political, or religious orientations. The Israeli population at that time was relatively...
The modern founder of special education in Poland was Maria Grzegorzewska (1888-1967), whose quote opens this chapter. Grzegorzewska not only organized special schools but she also created theoretical principles for educating and teaching children with special needs. As well, she initiated the establishment of the State Institute of Special Education in Warsaw that...
Australia is the smallest but geologically the oldest continent. It has an area of 7.7 million square kilometers, and a population of just less than 17 million. Of the entire population, nearly 5 million are children under the age of fifteen years. Australia was first used by the British as a convict settlement in 1788. Later, free settlers were encouraged to colonize the country to the...
Canada is a vast country made up of ten provinces and two territories. With the confederation of 1867, the federal government in Ottawa conferred a number of powers on the provinces, among them education. Although Ottawa retains some control over adult education and the education of Native people, general education is the exclusive right and responsibility of...
Part V: Integrated Special Education
The principles of normalization and mainstreaming, which have become the watchwords of special education in Western industrialized nations, were clearly articulated in the 1960s. In fact, the most important contribution the Scandinavian countries have made internationally to the treatment of the handicapped is undoubtedly the principle of normalization with its...
23. Finland, Norway, and Sweden
1he Nordic countries, which comprise Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland, are together known for their common cultural background and multilevel cooperation. In population, the Nordic countries are relatively small: Sweden, 8.3 million inhabitants; Denmark, 5.1 million; Finland, 5 million; Norway, 4.2 million; and Iceland, only 200,000. This article focuses only on Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Naturally...
24. United States
The origins of special education as a part of the public education system in the United States can be traced to the late nineteenth century, when several metropolitan school districts established special classes for children with learning or behavior problems. The founding of the International Council for Exceptional Children 1922 was a significant landmark...
25. New Zealand
New Zealand is a one-chamber parliamentary democracy with a monarch as the nominal head of government. Its population of 3.4 million people live in a country about the area of the British Isles or the state of Colorado, or two-thirds the area of Japan. According to the 1991 Census, the major ethnic groups in the country comprise those of European-mainly...
26. England and Wales
The international debate regarding the rights of people with disabilities registered significantly in the 1970s; accordingly, that decade symbolizes a landmark in the education of pupils with special educational needs. In this chapter we sketch briefly developments in the provision of special educational needs over the last two decades in England...
Page Count: 477
Illustrations: 61 tables, 3 figures, 20 photographs
Publication Year: 1994
OCLC Number: 632353793
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