Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Preface

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pp. ix-xiv

In 401 B.C. the Athenian citizen-general Xenophon and ten thousand of his fellow Greek soldiers entered the service of the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger, whose desire for the throne led him to rebel against his elder brother, Artaxerxes II. Despite the bravery of the “Ten Thousand,” Cyrus’s...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xx

As with any challenging endeavor, this book would not exist without the kindness and support of others. I received essential support and assistance in my research and writing endeavors from Rice University, the Museum of the Confederacy, the Virginia Historical Society, the Tennessee State Library...

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1. Ideological Origins of the Volunteer Junior Officer Corps

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pp. 1-24

“When we assumed the Soldier, we did not lay aside the Citizen,” George Washington avowed to the New York Provincial Congress in 1775, “& we shall most sincerely rejoice with you in that happy Hour, when the Establishment of American Liberty on the most firm, & solid Foundations, shall...

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2. Creation of the Civil War Junior Officer Corps

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pp. 25-61

In 1861 Confederate private Taliaferro N. Simpson of the 3rd South Carolina Infantry seemed a natural candidate for a junior officer’s commission. Raised in a prominent family and educated at Wofford College in Spartanburg, South Carolina, “Tally” Simpson decided to forgo his final year at...

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3. The Challenges of Company Leadership

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pp. 62-101

Armies often reflect the societies from which they are drawn. Nowhere is this more emphatically true than in the Union and Confederate citizen armies of the Civil War. While volunteer military service was the obligation of all citizens of a republic, the military profession itself was not considered...

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4. Citizen-Officer Culture

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pp. 102-134

Days after the death of his company commander at the Battle of Antietam and the promotion of his company’s first and second lieutenants, Sergeant Major Henry Perkins Goddard of the 14th Connecticut Infantry found himself an acting officer with the promise of a commission from his state’s governor...

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5. The Early War Combat Experience

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pp. 135-177

“I have seen what Romancers call glorious war,” Confederate artillery officer John Pelham wrote to his father a few days after the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. “I have seen it in all its phases. I have heard the booming of cannon, and the more deadly rattle of musketry at a distance—I have heard...

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6. Maturation of the Volunteer Junior Officer Corps

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pp. 178-217

In the winter of 1863, Captain Henry Thweatt Owen of the 18th Virginia Infantry still dreamed about Gettysburg. Five months earlier, on July 3, 1863, at about 2 o’clock in the afternoon, Owen and his regiment had trudged up the slope of Cemetery Ridge with Garnett’s Brigade of Pickett’s Division in...

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Epilogue

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pp. 218-222

“I have been thinking over the past four years within the past two days,” Lieutenant Charles F. Lee of the 55th Massachusetts Infantry (Colored) wrote in July 1865. “[I]t is almost impossible for me to realize that so much has been accomplished as a nation,” he confessed to his mother and sister...

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Appendixes: A Note on the Research Sample

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pp. 223-250

The research data for this study are derived from two separate samples with overlapping composition. All of the units represented include officers for whom I have writings or other manuscript materials and whom I could identify through census data or military records. The demographic sample...

Notes

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pp. 251-274

Bibliography

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pp. 275-312

Index

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pp. 313-322

Photographs

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