Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. v

Transliteration Note

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pp. vii-viii

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Foreword

WILLIAM C. BANKS

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pp. ix-xii

A persuasive argument may be made that the gravest threat facing nationstates today is not climate change, resource depletion, or catastrophic terrorist attacks but is instead an erosion of state sovereignty. Our world is vastly different from that facing the architects of the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. The world that sovereign nation...

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Preface

MICHAEL A. INNES

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pp. xiii-xvi

In the lead chapter to this book, historian Jeffrey M. Bale charges that the relationship between states and ostensible surrogates is “one of the most contentious and misunderstood issues surrounding modern terrorism.” More, “Cold War–era themes”—typically, the...

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1 Terrorists as State “Proxies”: Separating Fact from Fiction

JEFFREY M. BALE

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pp. 1-30

One of the most contentious and misunderstood issues surrounding modern terrorism is the extent to which diverse nation-states have been involved in using violence-prone extremist groups as surrogates or proxies. This theme was particularly salient during the Cold War, especially from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s, when governments...

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2 Missing Their Mark: The IRA’s Proxy Bomb Campaign

MIA BLOOM AND JOHN HORGAN

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pp. 31-60

Suicide car bombs have become a commonplace and virtually daily event in conflicts such as the war in Iraq or Afghanistan. When an attack occurs, we make assumptions about the intent and motivation of the driver and the organization that sent him (and, increasingly, her). When such attacks occur in an Islamic context, we presume...

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3 Fighting with a Double-Edged Sword?: Proxy Militias in Iraq, Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Chechnya

BRIAN GLYN WILLIAMS

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pp. 61-88

The use of proxy warriors is as old as warfare itself, even in Manichaean clashes of ideas and civilizations. The pagan Philistines used the soon-tobe- king David and his warriors to fight for them; the Persians hired Xenophon and his Greek mercenaries; the Romans hired Attila and his Huns. When the United States commenced...

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4 Auxiliary Irregular Forces in Afghanistan: 1978–2008

ANTONIO GIUSTOZZI

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pp. 89-108

Irregular armed forces have always been used in Afghanistan, in part because of the difficulty of paying for an army sufficiently large and in part because of the unsuitability of regular armed forces for much of the terrain. Even in the 1970s, on the eve of the long series of conflicts and civil wars whose end in 2009 was not yet in sight, some irregular formations were in existence. The government paid...

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5 Surrogate Agents: Private Military and Security Operators in an Unstable World

KEVIN A. O’BRIEN

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pp. 109-136

Since the rise of the great trading companies of the early modern era, the outsourcing of state military and security interests has been a constant. Exploration, exploitation, and conflict have gone hand in hand—whether in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, or Asia—and private warriors have been the key tools...

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6 Multinational Corporations: Potential Proxies for Counterinsurgency?

WILLIAM ROSENAU AND PETER CHALK

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pp. 137-152

The insurgencies, civil wars, and humanitarian interventions of the 1990s introduced U.S. military planners, strategists, and analysts to the important roles unofficial entities such as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and private military companies (PMCs) play in internal conflicts.1 Today in countries as diverse as Colombia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria, multinational corporations (MNCs) are...

Notes

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pp. 153-184

Index

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pp. 185-194

About the Editor and Contributors

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pp. 195-199