Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-xi

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Preface

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p. xii

This Third Volume of the ASEAN Reader series is published this year when the first phase of community building in ASEAN is ending, and its next phase is being charted by the Association’s...

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Foreword to The ASEAN Reader - ASEAN: Conception and Evolution

Thanat Khoman

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pp. xiii-xviii

On 8 August 1967 the “Bangkok Declaration” gave birth to ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, an organization that would unite five countries in a joint effort to promote...

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Foreword to The ASEAN Reader - ASEAN: The Way Ahead

S. Rajaratnam

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pp. xix-xxiii

If the last decade of the 20th century, to whose final death throes we are now the unhappy witnesses, can be termed the Age of Nationalism, then the 21st century, whose pale dawn is visible over the horizon...

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Foreword to The Second ASEAN Reader - New Challenges for ASEAN

Wang Gungwu

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pp. xxiv-xxvi

No one in the 1950s expected that anti-colonialism in Southeast Asia would give way to anti-communism and that this would be followed less than 40 years later by the triumph of capitalism...

Section I: ASEAN: the Long View

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Section Introduction

Ooi Kee Beng

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pp. 3-4

The history of Southeast Asia is a chequered one. Not only are we talking about a region dissected for several hundred years by colonial expediencies, we are also dealing with its bifurcated geography...

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1. Southeast Asia and Foreign Empires

Wang Gungwu

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pp. 5-8

Wang Gungwu: As I mentioned earlier, the term really came out of World War II, from the Mountbatten Command in Colombo, which was called the South East Asia Command...

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2. Southeast Asia and the Great Powers

Nicholas Tarling

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pp. 9-13

Southeast Asia has secured over the past half century both a large measure of interstate peace and cooperation and a degree of autonomy from great powers...

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3. The Evolving Nature of ASEAN's Economic Cooperation: Original Vision and Current Practice

Narongchai Akrasanee

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pp. 14-16

It is my great pleasure to be back at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS) after many years and to have a chance to speak at the High-Level...

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4. From Political/Security Concerns to Regional Economic Integration

Rodolfo C. Severino

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pp. 17-22

The Association of South East Asian Nations, or ASEAN, from its very beginning, has had two objectives. The first is to prevent the historical disputes...

Section II: Country Analyses

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Section Introduction

Ooi Kee Beng

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pp. 25-26

The end of the Cold War undoubtedly provided new vistas for Southeast Asia’s development and intra-regional cooperation. However, the Asian financial...

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5. Political Figures and Political Parties: Indonesia after Soeharto

Hui Yew-Foong

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pp. 27-30

From being a furniture businessman in the Javanese city of Surakarta, Joko “Jokowi” Widodo became the city’s mayor in 2005, then Governor of Jakarta in 2012, and finally...

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6. Malaysia: Close to a Tipping Point

Ooi Kee Beng

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pp. 31-35

The political changes occurring in Malaysia since the Asian financial crisis have been persistent and profound. Most significantly, these have not led to the ruling coalition...

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7. Thailand: The Military's Power Persists

Michael J. Montesano

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pp. 36-40

The military coup d’état of 22 May 2014 brought enforced quiescence to Thailand. This quiescence contrasted with the turmoil of the preceding decade. That turmoil included protests against...

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8. Vietnam: Reforms Show MIxed Results

Le Hong Hiep

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pp. 41-44

Over the past ten years, Vietnam has faced substantial economic, political and foreign policy challenges. The country’s efforts to deal with these challenges...

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9. The Philippines: Challenging Conventional Wisdom

Malcolm Cook

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pp. 45-48

On the political and foreign policy fronts, the last decade in the Philippines has shown powerful continuities nationally and in relation...

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10. Myanmar: Late Embrace of ASEAN

Tin Maung Maung Than

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pp. 49-53

Myanmar is a multi-cultural, multi-racial and multi-religious society. There are eight main ethnic groups, with the Bamar (formerly known as Burman) being the...

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11. Timor-Leste and ASEAN

Douglas Kammen

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pp. 54-58

The popular referendum held on the future of East Timor in August 1999 presented a novel challenge for ASEAN and its members. During the twenty-four-year...

Section III: Comparative Analysis of the Region

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Section Introduction

Terence Chong

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pp. 61-62

If there is anything consistent about Southeast Asia it must certainly be its diversity. The varied levels of economic development, differing systems of governance...

Southeast Asian Societies

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pp. 63-64

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12. Civil Society in Southeast Asia

Lee Hock Guan

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pp. 65-68

If one were to apply civil society as the associational space located between the private (that is, family) and public (that is, state) spheres to the Southeast Asian context...

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13. Multicultural Realities and Membership: States, Migrations and Citizenship in Asia

Maruja M.B. Asis, Graziano Battistella

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pp. 69-74

This chapter will examine some tendencies in selected Asian countries which have been affected by migration. Firstly, unlike the historical linkage to the post-Westphalian idea of the nation-state, the long colonial...

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14. Education in Southeast Asia: Investments, Achievements, and Returns

Diep Phan, Ian Coxhead

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pp. 75-78

Human capital investments have played a crucial role in the early economic success of East Asian economies. Given Southeast Asia’s rapid growth, the claim has often been made that these countries...

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15. ASIAN Pentecostalism: Renewals, Megachurches, and Social Engagement

Terence Chong, Daniel P.S. Goh

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pp. 79-83

We argue that Asian Pentecostalism is characterized by enigmatic attributes in three dimensions that distinguish it from Western Pentecostalism on the one hand and Pentecostalism...

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16. The Rise of Middle Classes in Southeast Asia

Takashi Shiraishi

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pp. 84-88

Postwar economic development over half a century has given rise to substantial urban middle classes in Southeast Asia. Constituted through rapid global and...

The Southeast Asian Economy

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pp. 89-90

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17. Urbanisation and Development in South-East Asia

Gavin W. Jones

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pp. 91-94

South-east Asia is one of the world’s least urbanised regions. Aside from Singapore, which is 100% urban, only Malaysia and recently, Indonesia, have officially passed the...

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18. Understanding the ASEAN Development Gap,

Mark McGillivray, Simon Feeny, Sasi Iamsiraroj

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pp. 95-98

In the minds of ASEAN stakeholders, the ASEAN development gap is the disparity that exists between the ASEAN-6 and CLMV groups — that is between the original...

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19. Tourism Policy-Making in Southeast Asia: A Twenty-First Century Perspective

Linda Richter

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pp. 99-104

The central problem for discussing public policy in Southeast Asia is that it is incredibly varied — politically, economically, linguistically, geographically, religiously...

Southeast Asian Politics

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pp. 105-106

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20. Low-Quality Democracy and Varied Authoritarianism: Elites and Regimes in Southeast Asia Today

William Case

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pp. 107-111

By the mid-1990s, democracy’s third wave had marked two decades of progress. But even as many parts of the developing world joined in, Southeast...

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21. Social Foundatons of Governance in Contemporary Southeast Asia

Garry Rodan, Caroline Hughes

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pp. 112-116

Capitalist development and its attendant crises have posed differing challenges for political and economic elites in Southeast Asia. Indeed, Singapore powerfully...

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22. Decentralization and Democratic Governance in Southeast Asia: Theoretical Views, Conceptual Pitfalls and Empirical Ambiguities

Marco Bunte

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pp. 117-121

In the last two decades, many developing and transitional countries have experimented with decentralization reforms. Much of Southeast Asia stood...

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23. Authority and Democracy in Malaysian and Indonesian Islamic Movements

Judith Nagata

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pp. 122-125

During the political upheavals of the past decade in the Middle East, Iraq, Afghanistan and what is often called the ‘Muslim world’, the attention...

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24. Southeast Asia in the US Rebalance: Perceptions from a Divided Region

Euan Graham

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pp. 126-130

This article explores perceptions and reactions across Southeast Asia towards the Obama administration’s “pivot” or “rebalance” to Asia. The US approach...

Section IV: International Developments

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Section Introduction

Cassey Lee

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pp. 133-134

Southeast Asia has often had to react to developments taking place in the world outside. International tensions played an important role in the formation...

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25. Is There A Southeast Asian Development Model?

Hal Hill

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pp. 135-139

Now into its 47th year, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN, is the most durable and effective regional economic and political grouping in the developing world...

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26. Global Production Sharing, Trade Patterns, and Industralization in Southeast Asia

Prema-Chandra Athukorala, Archanun Kohpaiboon

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pp. 140-144

The purpose of this chapter is to document, analyze and explain Southeast Asia’s engagement in global production sharing and to examine...

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27. Chinese Trade Policy After (Almost) Ten Years in the WTO: A Post-Crisis Stocktake

Razeen Sally

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pp. 145-149

So much has changed since China joined the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in late 2001. In the past decade China has become the leading regional power in Asia, and is...

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28. Southeast Asia Beyond The Global Financial Crisis: Managing Capital Flows

Jayant Menon, Aekapol Chongvilaivan

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pp. 150-152

Southeast Asia was one of the first regions to recover from the recent global economic meltdown. While the region posted an anaemic 1.2 per cent growth in 2009 — its...

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29. Impact of Eurozone Financial Shocks on Southeast Asian Economies

Jayant Menon, Thiam Hee Ng

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pp. 153-156

Five years after the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), the economies of the United States and the eurozone continue to struggle, with the eurozone recovery lagging behind that...

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30. The Collective Influence of Smaller States in the US-China Security Dilemma

Ja Ian Chong

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pp. 157-159

Sino-US disquiet over East Asia in recent years highlight the collective role that non-leading regional states have in exacerbating security dilemmas...

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31. China and Japan in "ASEAN Plus" Multilateral Arrangements: Raining on the Other Guy's Parade

Chien-Peng Chung

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pp. 160-164

The variety of regionalism in East Asia consists of an overlapping selection of bilateral, multilateral, and “minilateral” (three or more-sided subsets of...

Section V: Institutions of ASEAN

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Section Introduction

Malcolm Cook

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pp. 167-168

The governance and administrative institutions of ASEAN and ASEAN’s process of institutionalization itself have come under increasing pressure over...

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32. The Cambodia-Thailand Conflict: A Test for ASEAN

Sokbunthoeun So

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pp. 169-171

The current conflict between Cambodia and Thailand, both members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), provides a test case for ASEAN...

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33. ASEAN in the Twenty-First Century: A Sceptical Review

Shaun Narine

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pp. 172-175

This paper is an effort to assess ASEAN’s efforts at reform and their implications. Can these measures achieve the goal of rejuvenating the...

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34. Facing Unfair Criticisms

Ahmad Fuzi Bin Abdul Razak

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pp. 176-179

It was Tuesday, 20 November 2007. As I stood together with my fellow ASEAN High Level Task Force (HLTF) colleagues in the imposing Banyan Ballroom of...

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35. Challenges Facing the New ASEAN Secretary-General

Termsak Chalermpalanupap

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pp. 180-183

On 9 January 2013, Mr. Le Luong Minh, Deputy Foreign Minister of Viet Nam, succeeded Thailand’s Dr. Surin Pitsuwan as the Secretary-General...

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36. ASEAN Governing Mechanisms

ADB Institute

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pp. 184-188

Today ASEAN operates in a substantially different environment than the one it faced when it was established in 1967. The world has shrunk and its economy has...

Section VI: Assessing ASEAN's Internal Policies

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Section Introduction

Sanchita Basu Das

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pp. 191-192

Since its inception in 1967, ASEAN has been continuously evolving in its efforts at regional cooperation. Over the years, the organization has grown from five to ten...

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37. Challenging ASEAN: A "Topological" View

Donald K. Emmerson

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pp. 193-197

Security and economy have been, and remain, the standard fare of ASEANology. Democracy has been an afterthought in this literature. That is partly...

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38. Thinking and Feeling ASEAN; The Challenges of Integration and Identity

Moe Thuzar

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pp. 198-202

In December 1997, the ASEAN Vision 2020 statement outlined the notion of a single community in Southeast Asia, which, by 2020 would be “a concert of Southeast Asian...

ASEAN Political Security Community

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pp. 203-204

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39. Achieving An ASEAN Security Community

Jose T. Almonte

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pp. 205-208

Both security issues and economic opportunities are driving the ASEAN states toward closer union. The first of these security issues is increasing instability and...

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40. Turning Points Beyond the Comfort Zone?

Mely Caballero-Anthony

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pp. 209-214

ASEAN was mired in controversy over the admission of new members. Just as ASEAN was preparing for the ASEAN Ministerial Summit in July 1997 and its thirtieth anniversary...

ASEAN Economic Community

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pp. 215-216

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41. Implementing the ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint

Hadi Soesastro

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pp. 217-220

It has taken ASEAN a whole decade to translate its vision of an ASEAN economic community into a blueprint. The beginning was the ASEAN Vision 2020...

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42. Towards an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015

Denis Hew

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pp. 221-225

The idea of an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) was first proposed by then Singaporean Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong at the 2002 ASEAN Summit...

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43. Understanding ASEAN's Connectivity

Sanchita Basu Das

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pp. 226-230

ASEAN leaders proclaimed to create an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. While the fundamentals for creating a single market and production...

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44. Enhancing the Institutional Framework for AEC Implementation

Helen E. Nesadurai

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pp. 231-236

The institutional structure supporting the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) project remains limited. ASEAN member states are well known for resisting any form...

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45. What is a Single Market? An Application to the Case of ASEAN

Peter J. Lloyd

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pp. 237-240

The 2003 Declaration of ASEAN Concord II declared “The ASEAN Economic Community shall establish ASEAN as a single market and production...

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46. Non-Tariff Barriers: A Challenge to Achieving the ASEAN Economic Community

Myrna S. Austria

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pp. 241-245

A significant milestone of economic integration in the ASEAN region is the substantial progress in tariff liberalization. The achievement in tariff reduction...

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47. Towards a Truly Seamless Single Windows and Trade Facilitation Regime in ASEAN Beyond 2015

Jonathan Koh, Andrea Feldman Mowerman

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pp. 246-250

Trade facilitation is an ever-evolving term that has changed its elements and connotations as the world has become more integrated and production more fragmented...

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48. An Assessment of Services Sector Liberalization in ASEAN

Deunden Nikomborirak, Supunnavadee Jitdumrong

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pp. 251-255

ASEAN has made a remarkable achievement in liberalizing trade in goods. The progress made in liberalizing trade in services, however, has not been as impressive. Liberalization...

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49. Financial Integraion Challenges in ASEAN Beyond 2015

Maria Monica Wihardja

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pp. 256-260

Financial integration challenges in ASEAN beyond 2015 can be grouped into two broad classes. The first class of challenges are the regulatory and...

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50. Free Flow of Skilled Labour in ASEAN

Chia Siow Yue

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pp. 261-265

The AEC provides for market access for ASEAN skilled labour. “Free flow of skilled labour” affects the implementation of the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services...

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51. Towards A Single Aviation Market in ASEAN: Regulatory Reform and Industry Challenges

Alan Khee-Jin Tan

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pp. 266-270

The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have identified a 2015 deadline to establish an ASEAN Single Aviation Market (ASAM) for...

ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community

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pp. 271-272

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52. AN ASEAN Community For All: Exploring the Scope for Civil Society Engagement

Terence Chong

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pp. 273-277

This section offers a broad picture of the diverse landscapes in Southeast Asia in which the relationship between civil society and state varies according to the...

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53. Civil Society and the ASEAN Community

May-Ann Lim

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pp. 278-283

With the deadline to achieve an Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Community by 2015 drawing near, there has been an increased urgency to ensure that...

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54. The Evolving ASEAN Human Rights System: The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration of 2012

Gerard Clarke

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pp. 284-289

On November 18, 2012, heads of state of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (hereinafter “ASEAN”) met in the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh...

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55. Divided or Together? Southeast Asia in 2012

Bridget Welsh

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pp. 290-293

The year 2012 has brought to the fore the difficult realities of a region adapting to a more competitive global environment. With intensifying great...

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56. The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community

Caroline S. Guina

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pp. 294-297

Four years since the 10th ASEAN Summit in Vientiane in 2004, the ASEAN Socio- Cultural Community (ASCC) — one of the three pillars of the ASEAN Community...

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57. ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community: An Assessment of its Institutional Prospects

Julio S. Amador III

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pp. 298-302

The Southeast Asian region’s1 quest for community-building is ambitious in its thoroughness, encapsulating both the traditional realms of political-security...

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58. Executive Summary of the Mid-Term Review of the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint (2009-2015)

The ASEAN Secretariat

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pp. 303-308

1. The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) Blueprint’s primary goal is “to contribute to realising a people-centred and socially responsible ASEAN Community...

Section ViI: Assessing ASEAN's External Initiatives

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Section Introduction

Malcolm Cook

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pp. 311-312

Over the last decade, ASEAN’s role in managing economic, diplomatic and security relations between its member-states and outside major powers...

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59. Trust-Building in Southeast Asia: What Made it Possible?

Mohamed Jawhar Hassan

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pp. 313-316

When Southeast Asia emerged slowly from the clutches of colonialism in the last century it was a region riven with conflict and instability. On the...

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60. South China Sea: Glacial Progress Amid On-Going Tensions

Ian Storey

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pp. 317-320

The situation in the South China Sea during 2013 remained essentially unchanged. Tensions between the claimants continue to fester, fuelled...

ASEAN Processes

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pp. 321-322

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61. Driving East Asian Regionalism: The Reconstruction of ASEAN's Identity

Herman Joseph S. Kraft

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pp. 323-327

The process of East Asian regionalism received a shot in the arm in 2008 with the proposal made by Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd about restructuring...

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62. Pakistan, SAARC and ASEAN Relations

Faizal Yahya

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pp. 328-333

Both ASEAN and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) have a diverse array of economies at different levels of development and contain a wide range...

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63. Neither Skepticism nor Romanticism: The ASEAN Regional Forum as a Solution for the Asia-Pacific Assurance Game

Tsuyoshi Kawasaki

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pp. 334-336

Established in 1994 with the membership of eighteen states, the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is the sole region-wide multilateral security institution...

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64. ASEAN Plus Three and the Rise of Reactionary Regionalism

Mark Beeson

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pp. 337-341

In this section I examine the forces that have encouraged the development of the nascent ASEAN Plus Three grouping, which includes the much larger economies of Japan, China...

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65. How the East Asia Summit Can Achieve Its Potential

Nick Bisley, Malcolm Cook

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pp. 342-346

The Cold War provided a stable and simple bipolar global structure within which East Asian states organized their security and foreign policies. The end...

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66. 'Talking Their Walk'? The Evolution of Defense Regionalism in Southeast Asia

See Seng Tan

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pp. 347-351

Historically an ad hoc, uneven, and for the most part uncoordinated process, Southeast Asian defense cooperation has evolved incrementally from...

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67. ASEAN FTAs: State of Play and Outlook for ASEAN's Regional and Global Integration

Razeen Sally

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pp. 352-356

Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) have been the centrepiece of trade policy in Southeast Asia over the last decade, for individual countries and for ASEAN collectively...

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68. Taking ASEAN 1 FTAs Towards the RCEP

Yoshifumi Fukunaga, Ikumo Isono

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pp. 357-361

In November 2012, the leaders of the ASEAN 6 countries1 agreed to launch a new free trade agreement (FTA) negotiation called the “Regional Comprehensive...

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69. RCEP and TPP: Comparisons and Concerns

Sanchita Basu Das

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pp. 362-366

With the Doha Round getting delayed at the multilateral level and the bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) generating marginal gains for the...

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70. Enhancing the Effectiveness of CMIM and AMRO: Selected Immediate Challenges and Tasks

Reza Siregar, Akkharaphol Chabchitrchaidol

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pp. 367-370

Recent crises, particularly the on-going sovereign debt crisis in the euro area economies, has provided momentum to greater regional financial cooperation...

ASEAN's Major Power Relations

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pp. 371-372

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71. ASEAN's Adventures

Evelyn Goh

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pp. 373-374

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is not a major power in its own right; instead, the imperative of this collection of relatively small countries...

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72. Developing an Enduring Strategy for ASEAN

Ernest Z. Bower, Murray Hiebert

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pp. 375-377

The U.S.-ASEAN Strategy Commission was organized by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) to provide useful and practical...

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73. Non-Traditional Security in China-ASEAN Cooperation: The Institutionalization of Regional Security Cooperation and the Evolution of East Asian Regionalism

David Arase

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pp. 378-383

Security cooperation between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has not attracted much sustained attention, perhaps because it is not the kind...

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74. China-ASEAN FTA Changes ASEAN's Perspective on China

Wang Yuzhu, Sarah Y. Tong

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pp. 384-387

The China-proposed Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian nations) countries 10 years ago was mainly...

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75. Japan's Trade Policy with Asia

Shujiro Urata

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pp. 388-391

Japanese trade with East Asia greatly expanded from 1990 to 2011. Exports from Japan to East Asia grew 4.9-fold from $96.3 billion to $469.2 billion, while imports from...

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76. Managing Integration in East Asia: Behind Border Issues in Japan-ASEAN Trade Agreements

Yose Rizal Damuri

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pp. 392-396

In the 1990s, virtually only ASEAN countries made an effort to create a free trade area in East Asia and to harmonize limited aspects of economic policies, such as investment...

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77. Fortifying the Japan-ASEAN Strategic Partnership: Abe's Quest for Viable Hedging Policies

Sueo Sudo

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pp. 397-400

ASEAN has maintained close dialogue with Japan ever since 1973. At a special summit held in Tokyo in 2003 to celebrate the 30th anniversary, it was decided that...

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78. Prospects for Korean-Southeast Asia Relations

Lee Jaehyon

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pp. 401-403

The Republic of Korea is passing through three “years of Southeast Asia”, starting in 2008. A variety of anniversaries, summits and initiatives are...

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79. China's Two Silk Roads: Implications for Southeast Asia

David Arase

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pp. 404-408

In December 2014, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang attended a Shanghai Cooperation Organization meeting of prime ministers in Kazakhstan. He traveled on and met...

Section VIII: Southeast Asia: Peripheral No More

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Section Introduction

Ooi Kee Beng

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pp. 411-412

What we know as Southeast Asia today has largely been peripheral to world history, and it was only after the arrival of maritime colonialists...

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80. ASEAN Beyond 2015: The Imperatives for Further Institutional Changes

Rizal Sukma

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pp. 413-417

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), despite its origin as a loose and modest inter-governmental regional organisation aimed at preventing...

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81. Design Faults: The Asia Pacific's Regional Architecture

Allan Gyngell

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pp. 418-420

The Asia Pacific region has too many regional organisations, yet they still cannot do all the things we require of them. This matters because the large adjustments which...

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82. ASEAN's Economic Cooperation: Original Vision, Current Practice and Future Challenges

Emil Salim

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pp. 421-424

After Indonesia’s independence in 1945, Sukarno, the country’s first President, faced the challenge of building a nation that had been occupied for 350 years by the Dutch...

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83. The 2030 Architecture of Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Agreements

Suthiphand Chirathivat, Piti Srisangnam

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pp. 425-428

The economic world in 2030 will be unrecognizable from what it is today as emerging countries, including the Association of Southeast Asian Nations...

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84. ASEAN and Major Power Transitions in East Asia

Bilahari Kausikan

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pp. 429-436

The US and China are groping towards a new equilibrium in their relationship with each other and with other countries in East Asia...

Bibliography

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pp. 437-472

The Contributors

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pp. 473-484

The Compilers

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pp. 485-485