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The Ohio Hopewell Episode
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summary
There is a general consensus among the North American archaeologists specializing in the Middle Woodland period (ca 100B.C. to ca A.D. 400) that the Ohio Hopewell was a rather straight forward complex of small-scaled peer polity communities based on simple gardening and extensive foraging practices and occupying dispersed habitation locales loosely clustered around major earthworks. This book challenges this general consensus by presenting a radically alternative view. It argues that the Ohio Hopewell episode can be better and more coherently characterized by treating it as a complex social system based on dual and mutually autonomous social networks of clan alliances and world renewal cults, and that this dual clan-cult social system was, in fact, the culmination of such social systems that were widely dispersed across the Eastern Woodlands. The cults were devoted to treating their deceased members and/or dependants as sacrificial offerings to enhance the sacred powers of nature and the clans were devoted to transforming their deceased into ancestors and the stresses these opposing mortuary practices generated underwrote the dynamics of the Ohio Hopewell and brought about the monumental earthworks as sacred locales of world renewal cults.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page, Copyright
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. vii-viii
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  1. Figures
  2. pp. ix-xi
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  1. Tables
  2. pp. xiii-xiv
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. xv-xvi
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  1. Prologue: What Counts as the Ohio Hopewell?
  2. pp. 1-19
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  1. Part One. The World Embodied
  2. p. 20
  1. 1. The Ohio Hopewell Embankment Earthwork Systematics
  2. pp. 21-35
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  1. 2. The C-R Configuration (Circle-Rectilinear)
  2. pp. 36-61
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  1. 3. Meaning, Symbolic Pragmatics, and Ohio Hopewell Stylistics
  2. pp. 62-76
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  1. 4. The Newark World Renewal Ritual Center
  2. pp. 77-104
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  1. 5. Critique of the World Renewal Model
  2. pp. 105-125
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  1. Part 2. An Immanent, Sacred Deontic Ecology
  2. p. 126
  1. 6. Ecology, Cosmology, and Society
  2. pp. 127-155
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  1. 7. Subsistence, Settlement, and Ceremony
  2. pp. 156-176
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  1. 8. Woodland World Renewal Mortuary Ceremony
  2. pp. 177-201
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  1. 9. Early/Middle Woodland Deontic Ecological Strategies
  2. pp. 202-222
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  1. 10. Cult, Clan, and Ritual Spheres
  2. pp. 223-240
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  1. 11. Autonomous World Renewal Cult Systems
  2. pp. 241-268
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  1. 12. The Seip and Harness Great House CBLs
  2. pp. 269-295
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  1. 13. The Ritual Cycle of Generations
  2. pp. 296-323
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  1. Part 3. Ohio Hopewell, Sacrifice , And World Renewal
  2. p. 324
  1. 14. Funerary Crematories or Sacrificial Altars?
  2. pp. 325-345
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  1. 15. World Renewal Post-mortem Sacrifice at Mound City
  2. pp. 346-369
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  1. 16. The Vaulted Chamber Crypts of Ohio Hopewell
  2. pp. 370-406
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  1. 17. The Offering Altars of the Hopewell Site
  2. pp. 407-424
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  1. 18. The Laying-in Crypt and Burial Altars of Turner
  2. pp. 425-444
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  1. 19. The Controlled Fire Reduction Features (CFRs) of Turner
  2. pp. 445-473
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  1. 20. The Turner-Hopewell Ideological Axis
  2. pp. 474-495
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  1. Part 4. Factional Competition, Conflict , and Rupture
  2. p. 496
  1. 21. The Ideological Imperative
  2. pp. 497-513
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  1. 22. Time and the Material Correlates of Ideological Factionalism
  2. pp. 514-536
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  1. 23. The Shifting Ideological Postures of Ohio Hopewell
  2. pp. 537-556
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  1. 24. A Critique of the Civic-Ceremonial Center View of Ohio Hopewell
  2. pp. 557-576
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  1. EPILOGUE
  2. pp. 577-582
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  1. GLOSSARY
  2. pp. 583-588
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  1. NOTES
  2. pp. 589-630
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  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY
  2. pp. 631-656
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 657-674
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