Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-viii

The impetus for this volume came from some of my former students, most of whom now occupy professorships in Judaic studies throughout the United States. Reluctantly and not without trepidation I agreed to the suggestion and herewith offer samples of studies and articles written in the course of several years. ...

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1. The Attitude Toward Rome in Third-Century Judaism

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pp. 1-15

From Daniel to Akiba Judaea lived in the expectation of the impending end of the heathen world and the establishment of the—variously defined—true kingdom "which shall never be destroyed nor ... left to another people; it shall break to pieces and consume all these kingdoms, but it shall stand for ever" (Dan. 2:44). ...

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2. A Study of the Talmudic-Midrashic Interpretation of Prophecy

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pp. 16-35

The critical attitude toward the phenomenon of prophecy, and the attempt to check the unconditional prophetic authority in the name of institutional religion and for the sake of the established law and discipline, is probably older than the Babylonian Exile and the Second Commonwealth. ...

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3. The Concept of Peace in Classical Judaism

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pp. 36-47

The term classical Judaism will, in this essay, be used to designate the period in which post-biblical, rabbinic Judaism took form. Roughly speaking this era is identical with the talmudic period; more specifically, it commences with Hillel the Elder in Jerusalem (first century B. C.)— ...

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4. The Concept of Sacrifice in Post-Biblical Judaism

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pp. 48-57

After the destruction of the Second Temple in the year 70 and the abolition of the sacrificial cult it became incumbent to substitute a new concept of sacrifice in order to insure the continuity of religious life without a serious brake. The ancient prophets had of course taken up the issue of the ways that truly constituted the will of God. ...

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5. Hillel the Elder in the Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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pp. 58-71

It is still too early to evaluate the significance of the Dead Sea sectarian writings in relation to contemporaneous normative Judaism. As matters stand today, we have learned of some of the sect's teachings, its institutions, and its organizational detail. ...

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6. Faith and Action

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pp. 72-81

The relationship between the ideal and the real, the awareness of God (faith) and of the responsibility towards the world (action), concerns us both as historians of religion and, simply, as human beings living today. And just as one often wishes that modern man apply historical perspective to his thinking, so should one expect a theologian to be fully conscious of the needs of modern man. ...

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7. "Knowest Thou?. . ." Notes on the Book of Job

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pp. 82-92

With chapter 31, Job concludes his challenge to God. "Here is my mark, let the Almighty answer me .... I will declare unto Him the number of my steps, as a prince I will enter His presence" (31:35, 37). In the course of his argument Job has spoken of "the terrors of God" that "set themselves in array" against him (6:4); ...

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8. The God of Job and the God of Abraham: Some Talmudic-Midrashic Interpretations of the Book of Job

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pp. 93-108

The person of Job and the biblical record fascinated the talmudic-midrashic sages and occasioned a relatively significant amount of interpretative and hermeneutic utterances. However, except for a small collection of their sayings in T. B. Bava Bathra 15a-16b, and a section in the Jerusalem Talmud (Sotah 20cd), ...

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9. The Book of Job and Its Interpreters

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pp. 109-134

This series of colloquia deals with transformations of Biblical motifs. If we apply the term "motif" to the Joban theme of the innocent sufferer who rises in rebellion against a seemingly unconcerned, unjust, arbitrary God, whom in the end he encounters as the Creator and Lord of the universe, ...

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10. Zion in Medieval Literature: Prose Works

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pp. 135-148

In the period of Western European Emancipation important spokesmen for a Europe-Centered Judaism declared that Jews no longer considered Zion their concern. ...

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11. The Beginnings of Modern Jewish Studies

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pp. 149-165

Our inquiry into the beginnings of modem Jewish studies is in effect an attempt to analyze the most significant intellectual movement of Western Judaism in the recent period of history. ...

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12. Leopold Zunz and the Revolution of 1848

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pp. 166-173

Zunz's political speeches, given at various literary organisations in Berlin, a selection of which he published as an appendix to the first volume of his GesammeIte Schriften, inform us of what he expected from the democratic movement in Germany, and in Prussia in particular. ...

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13. Leopold Zunz and the Jewish Community

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pp. 174-178

Zunz's letters to members of the Ehrenberg family in Wolfenbuttel and especially to S. M. Ehrenberg, his first teacher, provide an insight into the scholar's attitude to the Jewish community in Berlin and the Jewish society at large. The brief presentation that follows is based on these letters. 1 ...

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14. Notes on an Unpublished Letter by I. M. Jost

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pp. 179-183

One of the most active men on behalf of Jewish synagogal and liturgic reform in the beginning of the nineteenth century was undoubtedly Israel Jacobson (1768-1828). His endeavors were motivated by the desire to remove from Jewish life all that was reminiscent of generations of isolated, segregated existence and to introduce a style that would make the Jew appear "modern," enlightened, ...

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15. Franz Kafka and the Tree of Knowledge

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pp. 184-191

Who is Joseph K in The Trial, K in The Castle, who are the other heroes in Kafka's stories? Various suggestions have been advanced by Kafka commentators—alienated man, modern escapist, neurotic man, homeless Jew, man of negative faith and others. It would be unjust to press for a uniform answer. ...

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16. Buber as an Interpreter of the Bible

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pp. 192-208

Forty-nine years ago, in one of his memorable addresses, Buber outlined, however tentatively, an approach to the Bible. Scripture is to be studied not as a work of literature but as a basic document of the absolute's impact upon the national spirit of Israel. ...

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17. Baeck-Buber-Rosenzweig Reading the Book of Job

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pp. 209-221

Leo Baeck died ten years ago; Martin Buber left us in 1965. And whenever the two are mentioned, a third name comes to mind: Franz Rosenzweig, who would have reached the age of eighty this December. There are still other men who typified—and still typify—the best in German Jewry's contribution to Jewish thought. ...

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18. Franz Rosenzweig in His Student Years

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pp. 222-229

In the following a few samples (in English translation) are presented from the diaries Franz Rosenzweig kept in his student years, accompanied by some brief comments. The entries start December 14, 1905 "about two o'clock in the morning." Summer of that year, Rosenzweig had commenced his studies (in medicine) at the University of Goettingen; ...

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19. Franz Rosenzweig: The Story of a Conversion

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pp. 230-242

The story of Franz Rosenzweig is the story of a conversion. A West European intellectual and Jewish assimilationist breaks with his personal past and becomes a Jew by conviction, rediscovers his people's existence, and becomes the modem interpreter of this existence. ...

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20. Introduction to Rosenzweig's Little Book of Common Sense and Sick Reason

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pp. 243-253

In July 1921 Rosenzweig wrote a little book on the relationship between world, man, and God, on the centrality of language and of time as a factor in human thinking. His major work, The Star of Redemption, written while in military service at the Balkan front, had just been published. ...

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21. The Frankfort Lehrhaus

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pp. 254-282

Soon1 after Franz Rosenzweig saw his way clear to remain a Jew and to dedicate his life to the cause of Judaism, he realized the need for a radical reorganization of Jewish instruction on all levels and a re-thinking of the function of Jewish scholarship in Western Europe. ...

22. Shenato ha-Aharona shel Franz Rosenzweig (Hebrew pages 1–10)

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p. 283

Source References

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pp. 284-285

Index

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pp. 286-295