# Genetic Structure and Selection in Subdivided Populations (MPB-40)

Publication Year: 2013

Various approaches have been developed to evaluate the consequences of spatial structure on evolution in subdivided populations. This book is both a review and new synthesis of several of these approaches, based on the theory of spatial genetic structure. François Rousset examines Sewall Wright's methods of analysis based on F-statistics, effective size, and diffusion approximation; coalescent arguments; William Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory; and approaches rooted in game theory and adaptive dynamics. Setting these in a framework that reveals their common features, he demonstrates how efficient tools developed within one approach can be applied to the others.

Rousset not only revisits classical models but also presents new analyses of more recent topics, such as effective size in metapopulations. The book, most of which does not require fluency in advanced mathematics, includes a self-contained exposition of less easily accessible results. It is intended for advanced graduate students and researchers in evolutionary ecology and population genetics, and will also interest applied mathematicians working in probability theory as well as statisticians.

Published by: Princeton University Press

Series: Monographs in Population Biology

#### Cover

#### Title page

#### Acknowledgments

The writing of this book was initiated at the suggestion of Sam Elworthy, science editor at Princeton University Press. Collaborations and discussions with Sylvain Gandon, Henri Leturque, Virginie Ravigné, Ophélie Ronce, Denis Roze, and Renaud Vitalis have helped shape my...

#### Preface

This book reviews the theory of spatial genetic structure, with some focus on the application of its concepts and results to the analysis of phenotypic evolution. It presents basic concepts, as well as some more advanced results that are relevant to the evaluation of current research...

#### 1. Introduction

Initial interest in spatial genetic structure came out of the idea that dispersal prevents genetic differentiation of populations. To some extent, it may prevent adaptation to the local environment. More efficiently, it limits the random genetic divergence of populations and thus the first...

#### 2. Selection and Drift

The measures of population structure of interest in quantifying selection are measures of the extent of genetic drift, that is, of random fluctuations of allele frequencies, either at a local geographical scale or at the level of a total population. This chapter describes how drift and its...

#### 3. Spatially Homogeneous Dispersal: The Island Model and Isolation by Distance

Patterns of genetic structure may provide information about the importance of population structure in evolutionary processes. They may also bring information about the parameters of population structure, such as deme sizes and dispersal rates. But the spatial patterns under different...

#### 4. Interpretations of Inbreeding and Relatedness Coefficients in Subdivided Populations

In the previous chapter, specific properties of parameters such as *F*_{ST}
were noticed, particularly their weak dependence on mutation rate, at
least at a local spatial scale. This property is important, as it will provide
a connectionwith measures of genetic structure that do not depend...

#### 5. Evolutionary Dynamics

The analysis of selection through game theoretical approaches seeks the trait values that are most likely to be observed in a population evolving under a recurrent flow of mutations for a given trait. A set of constraints on possible mutations affecting a trait is defined, and the...

#### 6. Convergence Stability in a Spatially Homogeneous Population

This chapter demonstrates a practical and efficient way to compute the measure of convergence stability proposed in the previous chapter, that is, a first-order effect on the probability of fixation of a mutant. The form of the main result [equation (6.18)] is of particular interest, as it...

#### 7. Inclusive Fitness, Cooperation, and Altruism

The existence of altruistic behaviors, that is, behaviors that decrease the number of offspring of an individual relative to other individuals, has long been (and still is) readily accepted by many biologists and nonbiologists alike. But it has also long been realized that selection should...

#### 8. Diploidy (and Sex)

The previous chapters have dealt with haploid models, where selection and dispersal concern only a haploid stage. Many organisms have alternating haploid and diploid stages, where in addition the diploid stage may be the longer lasting one. This certainly forces us to consider the...

#### 9. Effective Size: Concepts and Applications to Stable Populations

Attempts to characterize various population structures in terms of a single quantity have led to the concept of “effective size,” which gradually emerged from Wright’s work (e.g., Wright 1931a, 1938, 1939). Effective size in particular may quantify the extent of drift at the level of the...

#### 10. Fluctuating Demography: Neutral Models

In this chapter we formulate models of genetic structure in populations with fluctuations of deme size. In particular, we focus on the application of the concept of effective size in such a case. We have seen that population structure, in the sense of limited dispersal, increases effective...

#### 11. Selection in Class-Structured Populations

In a class-structured population, it is clearly better to have one offspring with a high probability to be the ancestor of the future population than one offspring with low potential to be the ancestor. Then a measure of the effects of selection on a trait may be given as a weighted average...

#### 12. Overview and Perspectives

In this book we have reviewed models of genetic structure and their uses in analyzing selection in subdivided populations. We have related different approaches such as game theoretical concepts of stability, inclusive fitness, effective size, and applications of diffusion approximations...

#### Appendix A. Mathematical Appendix

Some notation used throughout the book is summarized in Table A.1.

Vectors are usually denoted as bold lowercase characters (v) and
matrices as bold uppercase characters (S). However, bold uppercase
symbols are also used for vectors of variables that have been denoted...

E-ISBN-13: 9781400847242

E-ISBN-10: 1400847249

Print-ISBN-13: 9780691088174

Print-ISBN-10: 0691088179

Page Count: 288

Publication Year: 2013

Edition: Course Book

Series Title: Monographs in Population Biology

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