Cover

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Title Page, Series page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

This book evolved from lecture notes written for the course “Molecular Population Genetics” that I teach with Mikkel Heide Schierup at the Department of Biology, University of Aarhus. A second text in the course is Hein, Schierup, and Wiuf’s (2005) book on coalescent analysis. Students of biology and bioinformatics...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-4

Genomes and genomic variation entered into the study of genetic variation in natural populations in this century. The human genome sequencing projects led to increasingly affordable procedures for studying sequence variation, and by 2001¹ population genetic studies of genes were already dominated by analyses of...

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Part I: Genetic Variation

The information in biological inheritance is carried by genes. The genes of an individual human being are copies of genes that his or her parents transmitted through the egg cell and the sperm cell that united to form its original cell. A stretch of DNA sequence on a chromosome in the nucleus of one of our...

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1. Genetics

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pp. 7-20

Mendel based his description of heredity on experiments with the edible pea, Pisum sativum. Offspring of a cross between plants from a true-breeding line¹ of yellow peas (first parental line P1) and one of green peas (P2) gave yellow offspring (first filial generation F1) peas in the pods. Selfing plants grown from...

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2. Conservation of Variation

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pp. 21-52

Mendel’s first law is fundamental to any discussion of inheritance in diploid individuals. Even in a well-executed study a deviation from the expected segregation does not warrant a rejection of the law, but rather suggests that assumptions about the experiment or the considered variation may be unfounded...

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3. Diploid Populations

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pp. 53-70

The gamete pool or Wright–Fisher model is simplified to allow description of the genetic dynamics entirely in terms of transmission of genes between generations. This corresponds to assuming a population of haploid organisms. Higher organisms with sexual reproduction have a life cycle that oscillates between haploid and diploid life stages, and in most animals and plants...

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4. Mutation and Variation

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pp. 71-107

The replication mechanism of the DNA molecule ensures conservative transmission of genetic information from the mother to the two daughter cells resulting after cell division. Errors do occur, however. An error in the transmission of genetic information is called a mutation. Mutation is random. In a functional...

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5. Migration

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pp. 108-138

The genetic variation we find within a species is not necessarily present in local populations. Individuals in a local population tend to have more similar genotypes, and the remaining variation is manifested as differences in the genetic composition of the various populations of the species. An example of variation...

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6. Linkage

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pp. 139-180

The fundamental rules of population genetics that describe the transmission of genes from a parent population to its offspring population are a consequence of Mendel’s first law. Mendel also studied the simultaneous inheritance of several characters that by themselves obeyed the law of inheritance. In one experiment...

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7. Phenotypic Variation

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pp. 181-212

The study of variation in genomes and changes in genetic composition of populations through time is a study of the record of evolution, the unbroken descent of genes through time. In any study of evolution inference is based on observations made today, and in terms of genetic observations we rely on the principle...

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Part II: Variation and Selection

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pp. 213-215

The phenomena addressed in Chapters 2, 4, 5, and 6 are fundamental to population genetics because they describe the effects of the basic genetic processes of Mendelian segregation, mutation, and recombination on the distribution of genetic variation in populations. They describe and develop the theoretical basis...

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8. Effects of Selection

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pp. 216-263

In Darwin’s evolutionary theory natural selection seems formulated as exerting pressure on heritable variation. However, natural selection should rather be considered a consequence of variation in a character that influences the survival and reproduction of the individual. The variation in vertebra count of Zoarces...

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9. Genomic Effects of Selection

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pp. 264-308

Genes at different loci associate due to linkage in the transmission from parents to offspring—they interact in the formation of offspring populations (Chapter 6). In addition, genes may interact in their function, and if the variation in the corresponding phenotype is subject to natural selection, the effects of selection...

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10. Population Structure

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pp. 309-344

Natural selection can vary with the local environment—the obvious example is selection on the morphs of Biston betularia in polluted and undisturbed forest. As a first approximation the changes in polluted forest populations may be understood by neglecting exchange of individuals among different habitats, but...

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A Probability Theory and Statistics

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pp. 345-362

Mendel’s law is formulated in terms of probabilities of segregation and of obtaining the various types among offspring. Probability theory is, and always has been, an important tool for the formulation of genetic rules and regularities.
The probability that an F1 individual from the cross AA×aa is a heterozygote...

B Solutions to Exercises

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pp. 363-382

Bibliography

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pp. 383-412

Index

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pp. 413-421