Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

I am deeply grateful to the musicians and diplomats who generously offered their time and knowledge to make this project come to life. Among them, Richard Crawford stands out, not only for the vividness of his recollections but also for the probing questions he asked me...

Abbreviations

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p. xiii

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Introduction: Instruments of Diplomacy

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pp. 1-22

Sitting in the American embassy in Phnom Penh, Edmund Kellogg was overwhelmed and frustrated. As the interim chargé d’affaires for the embassy, he was responsible for reporting on the success of U.S. government–sponsored concerts in Cambodia. Unfortunately, there...

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1. Classical Music and the Mediation of Prestige

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pp. 23-46

From the early days of the U.S. government’s Cultural Presentations program, many of the musicians who were sent abroad played classical music— an American offshoot of a European tradition. The emphasis on classical music was not intended to be exclusive...

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2. Classical Music as Development Aid

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pp. 47-76

The State Department’s musical activities abroad included not only singers and instrumental performers but also conductors, composers, and teachers who traveled under the department’s American Specialists program. Specialists were typically scientists sent...

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3. Jazz in the Cultural Presentations Program

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pp. 77-100

When people today think about American musical diplomacy, Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman, and Dave Brubeck are the musicians who come to mind. The metaphorical associations between jazz and freedom, or even between jazz and democracy...

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4. African American Ambassadors Abroad and at Home

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pp. 101-122

As we saw in the case of jazz, African American musicians related to the State Department in complicated ways. They welcomed the chance to appear in the limelight and represent their country. Still, in their role as ambassadors they were also put in the awkward position...

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5. Presenting America's Religious Heritage Abroad

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pp. 123-142

As the historian Jonathan Herzog describes it, the Cold War inspired a “deliberate and managed use of societal resources to stimulate a religious revival in the late 1940s and 1950s.”1 Again and again American thinkers tied their country’s place in the world to its religious identity...

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6. The Double-Edged Diplomacy of Popular Music

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pp. 143-165

Whether cultural presentations should enlighten, impress, preach, or entertain remained a key question throughout the Cultural Presentations program’s existence. As we saw in chapter 1, State Department officials and Music Advisory Panels alike demonstrated...

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7. Music, Media, and Cultural Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union

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pp. 166-204

Musical exchanges between the United States and the Soviet Union were perhaps the most visible acts of cultural diplomacy of the era, capturing the imagination of audiences, musicians, and publics around the world. These exchanges took place in an environment of suspicion and skepticism...

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Conclusion: Music, Mediated Diplomacy, and Globalization in the Cold War Era

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pp. 205-226

Marshall McLuhan declared in 1964 that the availability of images and sounds via electronic media had transformed humanity, allowing immediate sensory perception of faraway events and giving each individual opportunities for participatory engagement in those...

Notes

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pp. 227-298

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 299-314

Index

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pp. 315-329