Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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Acknowledgements

Jane Bailey and Valerie Steeves

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pp. ix-x

We are grateful to the girls and young women who gave up their time to meet with eGirls Project researchers to talk about their seamlessly integrated online/offline lives and to offer their first person insights on how their equal right to eCitizenship can be enhanced. Thanks...

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Introduction: Cyber-Utopia? Getting Beyond the Binary Notion of Technology as Good or Bad for Girls

Jane Bailey and Valerie Steeves

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pp. 1-18

This volume is the culmination of a labour of love more formally known as The eGirls Project, a three-year research initiative funded by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) partnership development grant that began in 2011. We hope...

Part I: It’s Not That Simple: Complicating Girls’ Experiences on Social Media

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I. A Perfect Storm: How the Online Environment, Social Norms, and Law Shape Girls’ Lives

Jane Bailey

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pp. 21-54

It is all too easy for members of dominant social groups to assume that their way of knowing the world reflects both the way the world is and the way others see and experience it. Factors like economic status, sex, race, ability, religion, sexual orientation, and...

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II. Revisiting Cyberfeminism: Theory as a Tool for Understanding Young Women’s Experiences

Trevor Scott Milford

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pp. 55-82

Early cyberfeminists conceptualized cyberspaces as fundamentally liberating, theorizing their capacity to move beyond the traditional binaries and limitations of popular gender and feminist politics. Human-machine mergers made possible by technology were...

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III. Thinking Beyond the Internet as a Tool: Girls’ Online Spaces as Postfeminist Structures of Surveillance

Akane Kanai

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pp. 83-106

Mary Celeste Kearney argues that girls’ media studies scholarship, as part of its feminist underpinnings, understands girls to be “powerful agential beings.”¹ Accordingly, it can be observed that within scholarship, internet technologies like social network...

Part II: Living in a Gendered Gaze

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IV. The Internet and Friendship Seeking: Exploring the Role of Online Communication in Young, Recently Immigrated Women’s Social Lives

Assumpta Ndengeyingoma

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pp. 109-128

Friendship seeking and relationship seeking are part of the developmental tasks that accompany adolescence. Several studies show the importance of these relationships for social and personal development.¹ The continuity of these relationships can be complex...

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V. “She’s Just a Small Town Girl, Living in an Online World”: Differences and Similarities between Urban and Rural Girls’ Use of and Views about Online Social Networking

Jacquelyn Burkell and Madelaine Saginur

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pp. 129-152

This chapter examines the online social media experiences of girls (aged 15 to 17) and young women (aged 18 to 22) from rural and urban environments, focusing on the contrast between “small town” and “big city” participants in online social networks. Reasoning from...

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VI. “Pretty and Just a Little Bit Sexy, I Guess”: Publicity, Privacy, and the Pressure to Perform “Appropriate” Feminity on Social Media

Valerie Steeves

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pp. 153-174

When McRobbie and Garber first coined the term “bedroom culture” in 1976, they were attempting to create a theoretical framework to explore girls’ resistance to restrictive cultural tropes around gender.1 Subculture studies of the time largely ignored...

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VII. Girls and Online Drama: Aggression, Surveillance, or Entertainment?

Priscilla M. Regan and Diana L. Sweet

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pp. 175-198

Drama as a concept is difficult to define. For most scholars and individuals, it generally includes some heightened emotional behaviour or words, some aggressive “lashing out” or attempt to involve others in what is occurring, and some connection to or...

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VIII. BBM Is Like Match.com: Social Networking and the Digital Mediation of Teens’ Sexual Cultures

Jessica Ringrose and Laura Harvey

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pp. 199-226

Mobile digital technologies cannot be treated like some additional feature in young people’s lives. The mobile phone is often more like a limb, rather than a separate object from the posthuman cyborg body.1 These technologies are “actants” that dramatically...

Part III: Dealing with Sexualized Violence

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IX. Rape Threats and Revenge Porn: Defining Sexual Violence in the Digital Age

Jordan Fairbairn

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pp. 229-252

Just ignore the trolls. Don’t share personal information. Go offline. These mantras pervade discussions of digital communication and the abuse and harassment that occur online. Although often well meaning, these statements contain problematic assumptions about whose...

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X. Motion to Dismiss: Bias Crime, Online Communication, and the Sex Lives of Others in NJ v. Ravi

Andrea Slane

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pp. 253-280

In 2010, first-year Rutgers University student Dharun Ravi surreptitiously used his webcam to observe his roommate, Tyler Clementi, having a sexual encounter with another man in the dorm room they shared. Criminal charges laid against Ravi included four counts of...

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XI. Defining the Legal Lines: eGirls and Intimate Images

Shaheen Shariff and Ashley DeMartini

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pp. 281-306

The objective of this chapter is to address the nuanced complexities relating to sexting in the context of sexualized cyberbullying among youth, and related legal and educational dilemmas in public policy. We focus on key societal and legal issues to address why...

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XII. “She’s Such a Slut!”: The Sexualized Cyberbullying of Teen Girls and the Education Law Response

Gillian Angrove

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pp. 307-336

On 27 September 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada released A.B. v. Bragg Communications Inc.,¹ in which a teenage girl “sought to unmask her cyberbullies”² in order to pursue a defamation action, while still protecting her own anonymity. In 2010, A.B...

Part IV: eGirls, eCitizens

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XIII. Digital Literacy and Digital Citizenship: Approaches to Girls’ Online Experiences

Matthew Johnson

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pp. 339-360

Often efforts to educate young people about digital technology have focused primarily on teaching them to protect themselves online. This focus on “online safety” has been tremendously influential for a number of reasons: first, many educational programs have...

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XIV. Security and Insecurity Online: Perspectives from Girls and Young Women

Sarah Heath

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pp. 361-384

Participation in the online world is often contingent on one’s ability to disclose and share personal information about one self.¹ Such disclosure can have positive implications. Critical scholars have noted that disclosure can deepen existing relationships...

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XV. Transformative Works: Young Women’s Voices on Fandom and Fair Use

Betsy Rosenblatt and Rebecca Tushnet

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pp. 385-410

Media fandom is a worldwide cross-cultural phenomenon. Although fandom as a concept has far-reaching and diverse historical roots, this chapter focuses on a particular variety of media fandom that includes as a significant focus the creation of “fanworks...

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XVI. I Want My Internet! Young Women on the Politics of Usage-Based Billing

Leslie Regan Shade

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pp. 411-434

Based on the bouncy song, “Stop” by the popular mid-1990s girl-power band The Spice Girls, the Site Girls’ music video rendition remixes the Motown-influenced song and catchy chorus to argue for the curtailing of usage-based billing by internet service...

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Conclusion: Looking Forward

Jane Bailey and Valerie Steeves

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pp. 435-438

eGirls, eCitizens reveals the complexity and nuances of girls’ and young women’s networked lives. Not only does it challenge early euphoric predictions that networked communications platforms would facilitate the overthrow of patriarchy, it also calls into question...

Bibliography

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pp. 439-494

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Contributors

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pp. 495-502

Gillian Angrove is currently a law clerk for the Honourable Justice Donald Rennie at the Federal Court of Canada. She has a BA (honours with distinction) from the University of Victoria and a JD from the Schulich School of Law at Dalhousie University. During law school...

Index

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pp. 503-508