Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedicaiton, Epigraphs

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Contents

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List of Illustrations

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pp. xi-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xvi

This book aims to serve historians and students of anthropology, ethnography, and ethnology; of modern German and Russian history; of science and society during the Enlightenment. In writing an intellectual history of anthropological and...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xx

During the more than thirty years of conducting the research presented in this book, numerous scholars in Europe and North America have been of invaluable assistance. Words of gratitude go to Lawrence J. Baack (Berkeley, California), Robert...

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Series Editors’ Introduction

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pp. xxi-xxvi

Although a revisionist reading of the work and ongoing significance of Franz Boas has been underway in North America and Europe for some time now, very little has been written in English about the intellectual context that underwrote...

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1. History and Theory of Anthropology and Ethnology: Introduction

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pp. 1-38

Debates on the history of anthropology play an important part in anthropological theory. They generally revolve around questions such as: When did anthropology begin? How was its subject matter defined? What were the formative influences on...

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2. Theory and Practice: G. W. Leibniz and the Advancement of Science in Russia

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pp. 39-86

The foundation for a modern ethnological way of thinking was laid by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716). Leibniz was a Universalgelehrter, or polymath, whose work covered a broad range from philosophy, politics, and mathematics to history...

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3. Enlightenment and Pietism: D. G. Messerschmidt and the Early Exploration of Siberia

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pp. 87-130

In the grand narrative of European expansion beginning in the early modern era, Europeans, inspired by religious fervor and mercantile aspirations, discovered the Americas and established trading posts in Asia and Africa during the Age of Discovery (1450...

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4. Ethnography and Empire: G. F. Müller and the Description of Siberian Peoples

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pp. 131-218

The emergence of ethnography as a separate study during the exploration of Siberia was a key contribution to modern science. Historian Gerhard Friedrich Müller (1705– 83) inaugurated ethnography as a descriptive study of peoples in the 1730s and...

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5. Anthropology and the Orient: C. Niebuhr and the Danish-German Arabia Expedition

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pp. 219-268

Orientalism is often seen as the intellectual appropriation of a region or, in the words of the late literary critic Edward Said (1978:3), “a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient.” Drawing primarily on...

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6. From the Field to the Study: A. L. Schlözerand the Invention of Ethnology

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pp. 269-356

The first scholar to use the term Völkerkunde, the German equivalent of “ethnology,” was August Ludwig Schlözer (1735– 1809). A professor of history at Göttingen, Schlözer is credited with having introduced the concepts Ethnographie and...

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7. Anthropology in the German Enlightenment: Plural Approaches to Human Diversity

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pp. 357-394

In 1755 Dr. Samuel Johnson, the celebrated author of A Dictionary of the English Language, defined anthropology as “the doctrine of anatomy; the doctrine of the form and structure of the body of man” (Johnson 1755, vol. 1). This limited view of anthropology...

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8. Epilogue: Reception of the German Ethnographic Tradition

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pp. 395-436

The Société des Observateurs de l’Homme, founded in Paris in 1799, was the world’s first anthropological society. Established by the Idéologues, including Pierre-Jean-George Cabanis and Antoine Destutt de Tracy (who coined the term idéologie...

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Conclusion

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pp. 437-458

Enlightenment anthropology was a multifaceted field of studies developing in numerous directions. Various forms of anthropology (medical, theological, physical, philosophical) as well as ethnography and ethnology evolved during the eighteenth century...

Notes

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pp. 459-514

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References Cited

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pp. 515-688

This document lists all works used while writing the present book. The main distinction is (1) archival sources, (2) primary works (mainly eighteenth- and nineteenth-century sources), and (3) secondary works. The distinction between primary and...

Index

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pp. 689-720