Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

I thank Gari Ledyard for having been my graduate school advisor and mentor at Columbia University. The late Edward Wagner and the late Marshall Pihl advised my undergraduate research at Harvard University, where I wrote my undergraduate thesis about Mujŏng. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-74

In this introduction, I discuss how early modem Korean writer Yi Kwang-su (1892-1950) wrote about literature, and depicted gendered subjectivity. ...

Images

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The Heartless

Note on Translation

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p. 76

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1

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pp. 77-79

English instructor Yi Hyŏng-sik finished teaching his two o'clock fourth-year English class at the Kyŏngsŏng School, and set out for the home of Elder Kim in the Andong District of Seoul. He was sweating in the June sunshine as he walked. ...

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2

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pp. 79-82

The words "beautiful woman" did not displease Hyŏng-sik, but the words iinazuke and "engagement" made Hyŏng-sik particularly happy for some reason. Then Sin had gone on to say, "Try your best to please her, though knowing you, that isn't saying much." It was true. ...

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3

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pp. 82-85

"This is Yi Hyŏng-sik, the man I have always been talking about," the Elder said, motioning towards Hyŏng-sik. "He is young, but very learned, and well-known for his writing. When I asked him to teach Sŏn-hyŏng English, he thought nothing of how busy he is, but gave his consent. ...

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4

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pp. 85-87

Hyŏng-sik left Elder Kim's house and returned directly to his boarding house on Kyodong Street. He walked like a drunkard, aimlessly, unaware of where he was going, and found his way home out of mere force of habit formed while he had been living there for over a year. ...

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5

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pp. 87-90

It had already been over ten years ago. A man named Scholar Pak had lived in a neighborhood a little over ten li22 to the south of the town of Anju in South P'yŏngan Province. He had spent over forty years as a scholar, and everyone in nearby towns knew his name. ...

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6

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pp. 90-92

The memories flashed through Hyŏng-sik's mind like lightning, and he wiped his tears away and looked at Yŏng-ch'ae, who had put her head down on the desk and was weeping. The girl who, ten years ago, had clung to his shoulder, smiling, and pulled at his hand, calling him "older brother," ...

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7

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pp. 92-94

Hyŏng-sik and the landlady pleaded with her so much that Yŏng-ch'ae finally wiped her tears away, sat up, and ate some of the pear and shaved ice. Her eyes, red from weeping, and her flushed cheeks looked even more pathetic and lovely. Hyŏng-sik thought of Sŏn-hyŏng. ...

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8

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pp. 94-96

"Just as she was beating me, a girl who lived nearby came and said, 'A prostitute in that wine shop is wearing a large silver ring. When I asked her where it came from, the prostitute said that the recently married young man in the tiled roof house had given it to her. ...

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9

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pp. 96-98

"I slept next to my maternal uncle's wife. She was an old lady, and no matter how long I waited, she just kept turning over in bed and would not fall asleep. Finally, I pretended I had to go to the outhouse, and got up and put my clothes on. ...

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10

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pp. 98-100

"When I went into the inn, there were already six or seven guests there. The inn keeper was sitting in the warmest comer of the room, near the heating flue under the floor. Who are you, the inn keeper asked, looking at me. I said that I was traveling, and since it was dark, I wanted to stay there for the night and be on my way. ...

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11

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pp. 100-102

Yŏng-ch'ae was eventually taken away by that evil man. He lived in a small house at the foot of a mountain. One could tell at a glance that it was the house of a lazy man. Though he was committing this sordid deed now, he had once been known as a rich man in the neighborhood. ...

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12

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pp. 102-104

Hyŏng-sik felt somewhat relieved when he heard what Yŏng-ch'ae said. He felt affectionate and loving towards her once more when he looked at her face again. He was sorry for having doubted her chastity. Yŏng-ch'ae was pure as jade or snow in every way. ...

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13

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pp. 104-106

Yŏng-ch'ae thought she would confide all the thoughts she had been saving up within her heart, now that she had found Hyŏng-sik again-the man she had been unable to forget all her life and had thought of and longed for all this time. ...

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14

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pp. 106-108

After meeting her father, Yŏng-ch'ae was taken by a prison guard back to the reception area. Unlike the guard holding the rope, this guard kindly tried to console Yŏng-ch'ae. He sat her down on a chair in the reception area. "Do not cry," he said in earnest. ...

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15

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pp. 108-111

A month was a long time to wait. Yŏng-ch'ae began to think about her father again. She began to remember her father's frighteningly gaunt and emaciated face, his sunken eyes and his mud-stained clothes, the jailkeeper with the big beard, and the men who wore chains at their waist and carried buckets of feces. ...

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16

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pp. 111-113

Hyŏng-sik stood dumbfounded for some time after he watched Yŏng-ch'ae stop talking and suddenly get up and leave. Then he ran outside without even putting on a hat. However, he could not find Yŏng-ch'ae among the many passersby in the street. ...

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17

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pp. 113-115

Tears fell from Yŏng-ch'ae's eyes. Her pretty fingers trembled where they lay listlessly on her knees. Perhaps Yŏng-ch'ae had come to see Hyŏng-sik because she trusted him, and wanted to rely on his help. Perhaps when she heard that Hyŏng-sik lived in Seoul, she had come to see him in order to ask him to save her from her terrible situation. ...

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18

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pp. 115-117

The next day, because he had not fallen asleep until late the night before, Hyŏng-sik did not get up until after eight o'clock. He washed his face, then ate breakfast, thinking about Yŏng-ch'ae. Just then, two of his students from the Kyongsong School came to his house. ...

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19

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pp. 117-119

Hyŏng-sik lit a cigarette, put it in his mouth, and greeted Kim Chong-nyŏl and Yi Hŭi-gyŏng with a smiling face. He did not know why they had come, but he knew that if Kim Chong-nyŏl and Yi Hŭi-gyŏng had come together, it must be a matter that concerned all the students, or all the fourth-year students. ...

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20

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pp. 119-121

The dean (hakkam) at the Kyongsong School was Pae Myŏng-sik. He was also responsible for teaching geography and history. Since he drank a lot and frequented kisaeng houses, the students felt that he was unqualified to be the dean or an instructor, both of which were positions involving the education of youths. ...

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21

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pp. 121-123

"Will it help to do what is not right, though?42 You must exercise restraint," Hyŏng-sik said to an enraged Kim Chong-nyŏl. ...

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22

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pp. 123-126

I must see to it that this matter is resolved without incident, Hyŏng-sik thought as he went to school. Since Dean Pae is the cause of the controversy, I will meet with him and let him know what is going on, and then advise him to observe discretion and restraint in his behavior. ...

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23

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pp. 126-128

Hyŏng-sik looked at the yard outside for awhile, and did not let on that he heard the question, as though he did not want to answer. Then he sat down at his desk all of a sudden, opened the drawer, and started pulling out various books and scraps of paper. ...

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pp. 128-130

Hyŏng-sik walked out of the school gates and went home. Is Wŏr-hyang Pak Yŏng-ch'ae? he thought as he walked home. They say she is a kisaeng from P'yŏngyang, and that she is pretty, and that no one has ever slept with her. Could she indeed be Yŏng-ch'ae? ...

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25

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pp. 130-133

Hyŏng-sik removed his hat and Korean-style outer coat, and tossed them into his room. Then he sat at the edge of the veranda, loosened the sash on his Korean-style shirt, and fanned himself.. ...

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26

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pp. 133-135

What should I do? he thought. How can I get one thousand wŏn and save poor Yŏng-ch'ae-beloved Yŏng-ch'ae-the daughter of my benefactor? Shall I do this? Shall I do that? Still unable to reach a decision, he left for Elder Kim's house at one o'clock to teach English to Sŏn-hyŏng and Sun-ae. ...

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27

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pp. 135-137

Sŏn-hyŏng and Sun-ae did well at reciting and writing the English alphabet and memorizing it. They had practiced reading and writing the alphabet all day the previous day, and all morning today without stopping to rest. Sŏn-hyŏng did so with the thought of going to the United States. ...

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pp. 137-139

Hyŏng-sik left Elder Kim's house. Strange clouds circled Paegundae (White Cloud Platform Mountain),52 and a cool breeze grazed Hyŏng-sik's burning face. Hyŏng-sik felt refreshed by the breeze. Perhaps a shower would be passing through. ...

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pp. 139-142

There was indeed a passing shower that day. Part of a lovely rainbow that arched between Tongdaemun (East Gate) and Namsan (South Mountain) could be seen from Hyŏng-sik's room. Hyŏng-sik sat looking at the rainbow in a daze for a long time. ...

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30

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pp. 142-144

When Yŏng-ch'ae saw Hyŏng-sik for the first time in seven years, she had been happy and had wept, unable to contain her happiness. She had tried to talk about the past seven years of her life, but had stopped suddenly, gotten up and left, crying, and gone home. ...

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pp. 144-147

Yŏng-ch'ae had met several kisaeng over the years. She had seen what kinds of people were among the ranks of kisaeng. There were dozens of kisaeng whom she affectionately called hyŏngnim (older sister), dozens of kisaeng who were her friends and with whom she used intimate speech, ...

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32

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pp. 147-149

On the way back from the party, Yŏng-ch'ae took a walk with Wŏr-hwa below Ch'ŏngnyu Cliff. A group of four or five students from P'aesŏng71 Middle School in P'yŏngyang were standing on some rocks at Ch'ŏngnyu Cliff and singing cheerfully. ...

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33

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pp. 149-151

One evening, Wor-hwa sought out Yŏng-ch'ae and asked her to go with her to hear a speech. A new school called P'aesŏng had been started in P'yŏngyang, and hundreds of students were gathered there from all directions. The principal of the school, Ham Sang-mo, was truly admired by the students. ...

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34

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pp. 151-153

When Wŏr-hwa got home, she sat down and said to Yŏng-ch'ae, "I have found the man I sought. I was enraptured when I saw Principal Ham's presence and heard his words, at Pubyŏk Pavilion. And I fell completely in love with him tonight when I saw his appearance and presence, and heard him again. ...

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35

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pp. 153-155

As she faced Hyŏng-sik and told him about her life, Yŏng-ch'ae had been momentarily happy when she heard that Hyŏng-sik was not yet married. She was a kisaeng, though. It occurred to her that Hyŏng-sik would not give her a second glance once he knew that she was a kisaeng. ...

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pp. 156-158

Hyŏng-sik stood for a long time looking at a lamp with the name Kye Wor-hyang written on it. Then he sent Hŭi-gyŏng away, and stepped through the door resolutely. There seemed to be no guests, for it was very quiet. He walked into the courtyard without hesitation. ...

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pp. 158-160

Hyŏng-sik took the next trolley. A signal worker waved a blue light,79 and the trolley went around a bend, screeching again. In his anxious haste, Hyŏng-sik had mistakenly taken a trolley going from Kurigae to Sŏdaemun (West Gate). ...

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38

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pp. 160-162

While U-sŏn waited for the trolley to arrive, he looked at Hyŏng-sik's anguished face. The generator at the trolley station power plant made a thundering noise, and conductors and drivers in yellow uniforms walked about beneath the electric lights. ...

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pp. 163-165

The two men arrived at the house in Ch'ŏngnyangni. A detective from the Police Station followed after them. U-sŏn knew the secluded house that Kim Hyŏn-su frequented. It was a small house to the north of a well, and was the cleanest and quietest of several houses that were supposed to be used for meditation. ...

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40

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pp. 165-166

The detective tied up Kim Hyŏn-su and Pae Myŏng-sik with rope, and brought them into the courtyard. Hyŏng-sik wanted then and there to go and chew off their flesh, and grind their bones and eat them.87 The two men sank their heads down, as though ashamed. They were not contrite, though. ...

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pp. 167-169

Yŏng-ch'ae got home a little after eleven o'clock. Hyŏng-sik accompanied her to the front door of her house, and then went back to his lodgings. Neither of them spoke on the way from Chŏngnyangni to Tabang-gol, and they did not look at each other. ...

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pp. 169-171

"Wŏr-hyang!" When she got no answer from Yŏng-ch'ae, the old woman squatted next to Yŏng-ch'ae and shook her by the back. ...

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43

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pp. 171-173

Hyŏng-sik arrived at his home. He had never gotten home this late before, the landlady thought. "Why are you so late?" she asked as she lay in her room. Hyŏng-sik did not answer, but went to his room, turned on the light, and sat down at his desk still wearing his hat and turumagi. ...

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44

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pp. 173-175

Hyŏng-sik thought about Yŏng-ch'ae, and was unaware that the landlady had been standing outside his door. He thought about the scene that he had witnessed at Ch'ŏngnyangni. He remembered how Kim Hyŏn-su had pushed the window aside and gotten up from where he lay. ...

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45

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pp. 175-177

Hyŏng-sik heard the old woman tapping ashes from her pipe. She was sitting in the anpang. Hyŏng-sik lit another cigarette. What should he do? What should he do about Yŏng-ch'ae? ...

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46

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pp. 177-179

Hyŏng-sik did not fall asleep until after three in the morning, and slept until nine o'clock the next morning. He was very tired mentally and physically, and even after he was half-asleep, he had various agitated dreams. The old woman had already prepared breakfast, and had looked into his room four or five times. ...

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47

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pp. 179-182

Thinking of how happy Hyŏng-sik would be, U-sŏn took Hyŏng-sik to Kye Wŏr-hyang's house in Tabang-gol as though he were introducing someone to a new sight worth seeing. As soon as they had turned the comer at Chonggak, Hyŏng-sik knew that U-sŏn was taking him to Yŏng-ch'ae's house. ...

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pp. 182-184

When there was no reply, U-sŏn stomped his feet on the veranda and struck the floor with his walking stick all at once, as though angry. ...

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49

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pp. 184-186

U-sŏn too thought there was something significant about word that Yŏng-ch'ae had gone suddenly to P'yŏngyang. He looked at the old woman as she stood up and went to her room. The old woman would be able to explain the mystery behind the grave visit. ...

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pp. 186-188

Hyŏng-sik held the letter in his trembling hand. The envelope, open at one end, fell into his lap. The old woman squinched closer to Hyŏng-sik's side from where she was sitting. U-sŏn leaned over Hyŏng-sik's shoulder. Hyŏng-sik's heart was racing. ...

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51

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pp. 188-190

Hyŏng-sik wiped his tears away with his sleeve, and randomly read parts of the tear-drenched letter over again. He could not see the letters in the words very clearly, though. He rolled the letter up, put it on the floor, and opened the small envelope that had been enclosed with the letter. ...

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pp. 191-192

Hyŏng-sik, U-sŏn and the old woman bowed their heads without a word. Each had their own thoughts. Finally the old woman spoke up. ...

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53

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pp. 193-195

U-sŏn thought that what Yŏng-ch'ae had done was right. A woman's virginity was her life. If she lost her virginity, it was right for her to kill herself. This was the only thing Yŏng-ch'ae could do after the incident at the house in Ch'ŏngnyangni, he thought. ...

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pp. 195-197

Hyŏng-sik eventually fell asleep for awhile, but opened his eyes again with a start. Some passengers were leaning against the windows, some folded their arms over their chest, and some had fallen into an exhausted sleep, their heads thrown back. ...

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pp. 197-199

Hyŏng-sik opened the window and looked in the direction of Nŭngna Island. Nothing could be seen distinctly in the early morning haze, but Hyŏng-sik had seen P'yŏngyang several times and could place the general terrain. "That must be Nŭngna Island," he thought. ...

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pp. 199-201

Sitting in his rickshaw, Hyŏng-sik remembered the first time he had come to P'yŏngyang. He had arrived one morning in early spring through Ch'ilsŏngmun (Seven Star Gate), his feet wrapped in cotton cloth,109 his hair still in a long braid, with a white ribbon because he was in mourning for his parents. ...

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pp. 201-204

Hyŏng-sik's heart beat rapidly as he walked through the door of the police station. He could see desks and chairs where office work was done. A policeman in a white uniform and no sword, and a towel around his shoulders, sat reading a newspaper beneath a glass window. ...

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pp. 204-206

Hyŏng-sik and the old woman left the police station in utter despair. The streets were damp from drizzle. There were more people and more cars than before. The outer shutters of the stores had been opened. Someone sat on the side of the street washing their face and hands. ...

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pp. 206-208

"Here, I will take it," he said. The kisaeng giggled at the way Hyŏng-sik was using honorific language towards her. A large, gold front tooth glinted when she smiled. She pressed down on his knee with her hand, and fretted flirtatiously. ...

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pp. 208-210

The old woman told them about Yŏng-ch'ae, tears flowing from her eyes again. She told them about how Yŏng-ch' ae had almost been raped at a house in Ch'ŏngnyangni, how Yŏng-ch'ae had come home that day and bit her own lip and wept, and how Yŏng-ch'ae had come to her room the next morning when she was still sleeping, ...

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pp. 210-212

Hyŏng-sik ate breakfast there, then stepped outside the front door. He had eaten more than usual because the three women took turns urging him to eat. The rice, soup and chŏn 'gol117 moreover, were exceedingly delicious to Hyŏng-sik, who had eaten his meals at boarding houses all his life. ...

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pp. 212-214

The man leaned against his bicycle, and said cheerfully, "What are you doing here? When did you get here?'' He took out some cigarettes, offered one to Hyŏng-sik and lit one for himself. ...

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pp. 214-216

The two of them walked through Ch'ilsŏng Gate. The streets were lined with deteriorating houses. There used to be passersby before the railroad was built, and shops would sell wine and rice cakes. Nowadays, though, there was not so much as the shadow of a person, except on market days. ...

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pp. 217-219

Kye-hyang went ahead of Hyŏng-sik and sought out three graves that were side by side. The grave mounds which had been small to begin with had become almost level ground, after having been washed with rain for years. Wooden grave markers seemed to have been placed there once; ...

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pp. 219-221

Hyŏng-sik felt a boundless happiness on his way from P'yŏngyang to Seoul. He felt drawn by love to all of the people on the train, and everyone seemed to give him an unspeakable happiness. ...

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pp. 221-223

The train now passed Namch' ŏn Station in Sinmak, and raced towards the vicinity of former Kŭmch' ŏn Mountain, the most mountainous part of the Kyŏngŭi Railroad.125 The crescent moon had already disappeared from the sky, and it was dark outside the train windows. ...

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pp. 223-225

Hyŏng-sik returned to his lodgings, ate breakfast, and went right to school. "You look very tired. You should take the day off," the old woman said. Hyŏng-sik would not listen to the old woman, though. Hyŏng-sik was exhausted from the last four days of mental exertion and lack of sleep. ...

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pp. 225-227

We diverge from our story momentarily here, but there is a need to discuss Hyŏng-sik's life as a teacher. Hyŏng-sik's life as a teacher at the Kyŏngsŏng School over the past four years could be summarized as a life of love and anguish. ...

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pp. 227-229

Yi Hŭi-gyŏng and his friends could not, of course, understand those difficult books. After reading ten or twenty pages, they could not systematically understand what they had read. They were content if there were a few phrases here and there that they could understand. ...

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pp. 229-231

Hyŏng-sik had a habit of lamenting that he did not have enough knowledge and cultivation. He sincerely meant it, but the students had thought he was only being modest. Recently, however, the students realized it was the truth. ...

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pp. 231-234

Hyŏng-sik went to the office. The bell signaling the beginning of class had already rung, and the teachers were all in class. Dean Pae sat at his desk smoking a cigarette. He glanced at Hyŏng-sik, then turned his head away. ...

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pp. 234-236

Hyŏng-sik went to the outdoor gymnasium. The first-year students looked at Hyŏng-sik as they did their calisthenics. The fat physical education teacher wiped sweat from his forehead with a cloth and greeted Hyŏng-sik. They all seemed to Hyŏng-sik to be laughing at him. ...

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pp. 236-238

Hyŏng-sik returned home in a daze. The old woman sat on the veranda in her underwear, without wearing a blouse, smoking her pipe. Her shoulders and elbows were bony, and her two breasts were stuck to her chest as though they had dried up and adhered to the surface. ...

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pp. 238-240

Hyŏng-sik had not been thinking about what he was saying when he said he wanted to be a monk. Now that he had said it, though, it did indeed seem to be the best thing to do. He seemed to have no alternative. He seemed to have lost all at once the will to exert himself for both Korean civilization and his own reputation. ...

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pp. 240-243

Hyŏng-sik was further taken aback with what the old woman said. Had he indeed been heartless to Yŏng-ch'ae? Should he have taken her hand and told her that he too had thought of her and missed her while they had been apart? ...

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pp. 243-245

The pastor began to speak. The old woman and U-sŏn listened attentively, though pretending not to. "Elder Kim says that he is sending his daughter Sŏn-hyŏng to the United States this autumn." ...

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pp. 245-247

U-sŏn winked at Hyŏng-sik. Hyŏng-sik deliberately pretended not to notice. U-sŏn winked at him again. Hyŏng-sik saw him but pretended that he had not. Hyŏng-sik lowered his head. He felt even more embarrassed and confused. He tried to interpret the meaning of U-sŏn's winks. ...

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pp. 247-250

The sun was setting over the ridge of lnwang Mountain. Telegraph poles on Chongno Avenue cast long shadows. The windows of the cathedral tower in the Chonghyŏn District shone like fire, reflecting the setting sun. The bean curd vender could no longer be heard crying, "Bean curd! Bean curd dregs!" ...

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pp. 250-252

Elder Kim's study was furnished in Western style. Ever since he had been to the United States as consul, he had tried to live in Western style. ...

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pp. 252-254

Elder Kim had not hung paintings inside his house for the sake of art. His children, however, saw the paintings, and the paintings indirectly motivated the children to love art. Elder Kim had put the paintings up because they were portraits of Christ, and not because they were paintings. ...

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pp. 254-255

Sŏn-hyŏng sat with her head lowered. Until then, she had never thought Hyong-sik would become her husband. ...

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pp. 255-257

"How shall we proceed?" Elder Kim asked the pastor. Elder Kim had never had any experience with the new style of marriage, and genuinely did not know how to proceed. The pastor himself had no idea, but could not admit it now that he was in this situation. ...

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pp. 257-259

"Then it is settled. The engagement has been formally concluded, now that we have the approval of the parents, and the consent of the bride and groom." The pastor finally seemed satisfied, and smiled. He thought these conditions should be sufficient for a modern marriage. ...

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84

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pp. 259-261

Hyŏng-sik stepped outside of the front door of Elder Kim's house. The humid air of the summer evening flowed past Hyŏng-sik's sweaty body like waves of water. It was very cool and refreshing to Hyŏng-sik. ...

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pp. 261-263

"I will have to go there to know for certain, but I would like to study education. All of my experience until now has been in education, and, moreover, education seems to be the most important thing for Korea now. I want to study modem education as best I can, and spend my life in education." ...

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pp. 263-265

Let us now say something about Yŏng-ch'ae. Had she indeed descended through the blue waters of the Taedong River, and become a denizen of the Dragon King's palace? Some of you readers may have wept in sadness that Yŏng-ch'ae has died. ...

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87

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pp. 265-267

Yŏng-ch'ae grimaced as she dabbed at her eye with her handkerchief. Ouch, that hurts! she thought. At first the piece of coal dust seemed to have gotten under her eyelid. After she rubbed her eye for awhile, she was not sure where the coal dust was, and her eye just hurt. ...

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88

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pp. 267-269

"Thank you," she said. The woman was about to sit down, but then thought of something, and went to where she had sat earlier, spoke with the youth, and took out a four-cornered paper box from a travel bag. She brought the box over, and sat across from Yŏng-ch'ae. ...

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89

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pp. 270-271

Yŏng-ch'ae felt her heart ache at the words. Had she indeed loved Hyŏng-sik? She did not know. She had just thought Hyŏng-sik was someone she had to find and care for as her husband. In the past eight years, she had never asked herself whether or not she loved him, though. ...

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90

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pp. 271-273

"Yes, a true life will unfurl for you. You have lived a deception until now. Your real life begins now. Happiness awaits you. Why throw away the happiness that awaits you, and end your life?" The woman student felt sure that this would be enough to change Yŏng-ch'ae's resolve to die. ...

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91

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pp. 273-275

When the woman student got off the train at Hwangju, she took Yŏng-ch'ae with her. She thought of Yŏng-ch'ae as a friend, and wanted to introduce her to her family, and let her stay with her in her own room. Living at home were her parents, who were in their forties, a brother who was three or four years older than she was, ...

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92

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pp. 275-277

Pyŏng-uk studied music. Once when she was playing the violin, she said to Yŏng-ch'ae, "My parents are upset because I study music. My parents say they won't give me money for tuition. They ask me if I intend to become a kwangdae143 with that kind of training. ...

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93

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pp. 278-280

Yŏng-ch'ae learned more and more about Pyŏng-uk's family. Yŏng-ch'ae had been without a family for a long time. Pyŏng-uk's family had parents and siblings, and seemed joyous and happy as heaven on earth. When Yŏng-ch'ae learned more about Pyŏng-uk's family, ...

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94

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pp. 280-281

Differences of opinion between father and son can be tolerated; however, it must be quite unbearable for there to be no love between husband and wife, thought Yŏng-ch'ae. Though the matter of Pyŏng-uk's marriage did not directly affect Yŏng-ch'ae, Yŏng-ch'ae had developed an affection for Pyŏng-uk's family after having stayed with them for over a week, ...

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95

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pp. 282-283

Hyŏng-sik passed the time in dreamlike happiness. Every day, he taught Sŏn-hyŏng English, and afterwards, they would talk about various things. Sŏn-hyŏng began to feel familiar with Hyŏng-sik, and even began to joke little by little, though she was still shy. ...

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96

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pp. 284-285

Sŏn-hyŏng thought that Hyŏng-sik was too unqualified to be her partner. Her ideal husband was the following: first of all, his face was round, and he had white skin with a rosy, glowing complexion; he was articulate and cheerful; he was sleek and trim, any way you looked at him; ...

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97

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pp. 285-287

Hyŏng-sik himself did not think Sŏn-hyŏng would be attracted to his appearance. After getting engaged to Sŏn-hyŏng, Hyŏng-sik had examined his face in the mirror and thought about which parts Sŏn-hyŏng would like and which parts she would not like, ...

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98

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pp. 287-289

Hyŏng-sik was shocked when he read Pyŏng-guk's letter. Pyŏng-guk had been one of the Korean students in Japan with the most integrity. He did not drink, and he did not go anywhere near women. He had very firm beliefs about marriage. ...

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99

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pp. 289-291

Sŏn-hyŏng thought for a few moments. "How do you feel?" she asked. ...

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100

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pp. 291-293

One day Pyŏng-uk sat plucking the strings of the violin that lay on the floor beside her, and read the Komun Chinbo that she had studied with Yŏng-ch' ae. Just then her brother Pyŏng-guk came home, and sat down at the threshold of Pyŏng-uk's room, fanning himself with a panama hat. ...

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101

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pp. 293-295

"We miss you all year long, and now that we have seen you again, you are leaving after less than a month? You do not want to see me! Do not leave until you have eaten all of the honeydew and watermelons that I planted for you in the cotton field." ...

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102

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pp. 295-297

Pyŏng-uk's mother prepared various delicious things to eat on the occasion of her daughter's departure for a faraway destination. She cooked rice, made rice cakes and slaughtered a chicken. Then she sat quietly and watched her daughter eat. ...

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103

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pp. 297-300

Pyŏng-uk and Yŏng-ch'ae got on the train, and looked out the train windows at the group that was sending them off. Pyŏng-guk had to go to Sariwon on business, and got on the train with them, but he just sat in his seat and did not bother to look outside since he would be returning home that evening. ...

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104

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pp. 300-302

The train arrived at Namdaemun. It was not yet completely dark outside, but electric lights were twinkling in all directions. The sounds of the city-the train, the rickshaws-together with that of wooden shoes clattering on the wide station platform, were very unsettling to the ears of the two young women, ...

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105

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pp. 302-304

Yŏng-ch'ae sat alone and thought. First of all, she wondered where Hyŏng-sik was going. He seemed to be going somewhere far away since someone had said, "Long live Hyŏng-sik!" I know that he is on this train, but he probably does not know that I am here, she thought. ...

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106

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pp. 304-306

"What's wrong?" Sŏn-hyŏng said after U-sŏn got up. "What kind of person is Pak Yŏng-ch'ae?" ...

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107

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pp. 306-308

Hyŏng-sik wanted to see Yŏng-ch'ae's face immediately. He seemed to have forgotten her face as he had seen it before, and thought he must see her face again. He wanted to see the face of the woman he had thought was dead. ...

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108

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pp. 308-310

Once, after Hyŏng-sik had talked about his relationship with Yŏng-ch'ae, the Elder had smiled and said, "It is common for most men to have an affair like this once or twice." Hyŏng-sik did not try to explain any further, but it bothered him that Elder Kim did not seem to trust his character. ...

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109

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pp. 310-312

Hyŏng-sik thought that nothing but happiness awaited him. He felt nothing but happiness as he received his friend's farewells when leaving Namdaemun. His chest tightened with sorrow when he saw Hŭi-gyŏng and his friends standing behind the other well-wishers and looking at him. ...

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110

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pp. 312-314

U-sŏn had loved Yŏng-ch'ae for her looks, but after he realized that she had saved herself for Hyŏng-sik all this time, and after he saw her resolve to die because of the incident at Ch'ŏngnyangni, he loved her because he thought she was an ideal woman who had beauty, talent and virtue. ...

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111

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pp. 314-316

Pyŏng-uk returned after seeing Sŏn-hyŏng back to her seat. When Yŏng-ch'ae saw Pyŏng-uk return, she took her by the hand and sat her down. ...

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112

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pp. 316-318

"The other passengers will think it strange. Stop crying. Why wouldn't this world give you happiness? If it doesn't, you should demand it. If it still doesn't give you happiness, then you should take it anyway. ...

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113

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pp. 319-320

Hyŏng-sik could not summon up the courage to say anything further to Yŏng-ch'ae, so he spoke to Pyŏng-uk. "How do you two know each other? Have you known Yŏng-ch'ae for a long time?'' ...

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114

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pp. 321-322

"You have so many worries! All you have to do is get on a boat at Pusan, then get on a train at Shimonoseki, then get on a boat at Yokohama, and get off at San Francisco. What are you worried about?" ...

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115

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pp. 323-324

Hyŏng-sik had certainly not wanted Sŏn-hyŏng merely as a plaything, or out of mere physical desire. He had a strong aversion to his fellow countrymen's attitude that love was just a diversion, an amusement. He thought it was a great sin to love the opposite sex just to satisfy a moment's desire. ...

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116

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pp. 324-326

Sŏn-hyŏng did not have peace of mind, though. Her mind had become agitated while Hyŏng-sik had gone to see Yŏng-ch'ae and was away from his seat. When Son-hyŏng saw how anguished Hyŏng-sik was to hear that Yŏng-ch'ae was on board the train, ...

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117

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pp. 326-328

It seemed as though it had been two or three hours since Hyŏng-sik had left to go see Yŏng-ch'ae. He seemed to be staying there for quite some time. The longer he was away, the more agitated Sŏn-hyŏng's mind became. ...

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118

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pp. 328-330

Sŏn-hyŏng became afraid. Her internal organs seemed to be on fire, and sooty flames seemed to be darting from her nose. The sound of her own panting breath seemed like that of a large demon standing beside her, blowing cold gusts of air on her. ...

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119

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pp. 330-332

"Look at that! Those houses are half-submerged in water!" said Pyŏng-uk, pointing to some thatched roof houses that stood along a road that branched off into the road to Masan. It was indeed a great flood. Muddy red water was everywhere, leaving only the mountains unsubmerged. ...

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120

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pp. 332-335

Crowds of homeless people were drenched in rain as they stood at the foot of the mountains, water running all over their bodies. Women holding children bent over the children and covered them with their bodies. ...

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121

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pp. 335-337

Pyŏng-uk sat down, tucking up the sleeves of her unlined Korean blouse, and her skirt, and rubbed the young woman's hand. ...

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122

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pp. 337-339

Pyŏng-uk went to the police station, and asked to see the station chief. The station chief gave Pyŏng-uk a strange look. ...

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123

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pp. 339-341

"Though the baby cries, mother's breast will give no milk. What can mother feed the baby? Cruel red waters have washed away everything they worked for spring and summer. Darkness descends in the wind and rain. Elderly parents and young couples have lost their homes. ...

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124

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pp. 341-343

Everyone was nervous. Moreover, Yŏng-ch'ae had never heard a discussion of such an important question. "How can we save them?" It was a very important question. Hyŏng-sik and Pyŏng-uk seemed very mature and impressive as they talked about this question. ...

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125

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pp. 343-345

"Yes, we were going to talk about how we can save the Korean people. We were each going to talk about our goals." ...

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126

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pp. 346-348

Hyŏng-sik and Sŏn-hyŏng are now fourth-year students at the University of Chicago. They have been well, and plan to travel through post-war171 Europe after graduating in September. Then they will return to Korea. ...

Bibliography

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pp. 349-372

Index

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pp. 373-376