Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

read more

Preface and Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-2

The highlands in the China-Vietnam borderlands are a craggy, rough, and unforgiving place. Until the eighteenth century, they contained no roads, only footpaths, and fell largely outside any local administration on either side of the border. Only those with few other options elected to live there. Increasing demographic pressures in the surrounding...

read more

1. Upland Alternatives: An Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-19

Two hundred million people, more than half of whom are ethnic minorities, reside in the uplands of the Southeast Asian Massif, with livelihoods based predominantly on rural agriculture (map 1.1). In this book, we offer an examination of the predicaments, choices, and fates of members of one such minority group, known by its most common ethnonym, the...

read more

2. Frontier Dynamics: Borders and the Hmong

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 20-37

Since 1981, China has officially recognized fifty-five “minority nationalities” (shaoshu minzu). Thirty-two of these, with a combined population of more than sixty-five million, are indigenous to the southwest area. In Vietnam, fifty-three distinct “minority nationalities” (các dân tộc thiếu số) have been officially recognized since 1979; forty-nine...

read more

3. Borderland Livelihoods: Everyday Decisions and Agrarian Change

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 38-62

Since economic liberalization and the subsequent demise of collective farming in the 1980s, China and Vietnam’s centralized states have turned toward agricultural commodification and, among other priorities, frontier development. Consequently, the agricultural sectors of southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam have been undergoing sweeping...

read more

4. Livestock Transactions: Buffalo Traversing the Borderlands

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 63-83

For tens of thousands of Hmong households in the Sino-Vietnamese uplands that continue to depend on semi-subsistence livelihoods, water buffalo (nyuj twm in RPA) are an essential asset in more ways than one. To guarantee a supply of buffalo, borderland residents must carefully weigh the benefits and disadvantages of partaking in the various upland...

read more

5. Locally Distilled Alcohol: Commodifying an Upland Tradition

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 84-103

Just as buffalo are key to the society, rituals, and livelihoods of many minority groups in upland southwest China and northern Vietnam, so too are distilled rice and maize spirits (generically known as cawv in Hmong, jiu in Chinese, and rượu in Vietnamese).1 The widespread tradition of distilling has been a Hmong household practice for...

read more

6. Farming under the Trees: Old Skills and New Markets

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 104-124

Throughout the Sino-Vietnamese borderlands, rural livelihoods and social relations are in a state of flux. While some upland societies have been cautious about altering long-standing practices that have suited them for generations, others have embraced the new prospects offered by agrarian transformations, far-reaching commodity...

read more

7. Weaving Livelihoods: Local and Global Hmong Textile Trades

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 125-147

Visitors to the Sino-Vietnamese borderlands have long been fascinated by the customary clothing, textiles, batik, and embroidery worn by upland ethnic minorities, especially women (fig. 7.1). Chinese and Vietnamese ethnologists have tended to use customary dress colors to name Hmong subgroups, following common practice— for...

read more

8. The Challenge: Making a Living on the Margins

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 148-172

It quickly becomes obvious to anyone undertaking long-term rural fieldwork in the Global South that the factors involved in the composition of livelihoods are never static even among the most “traditional” of populations. Individual and household livelihoods are constantly being reworked in an ongoing process as opportunities and assets shift from village...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 173-186

Glossary

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 187-188

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 189-216

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 217-223