Cover

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Title page, Copyright

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xiv

This book has been written through the generous and steadfast support of many colleagues and friends. My undergraduate adviser, Leon Litwack, sparked a love of history and an appreciation for those who came before me. My graduate adviser, Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, served as a model...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-20

In the mid-1970s, even as President Richard Nixon’s “law and order” and anti-busing campaigns signaled to many the decline of the civil rights movement, Evelina Antonetty was beginning to reap the fruits of her organizing work in the South Bronx. Antonetty, a Puerto Rican, had been...

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1. Puerto Ricans, Race, and Ethnicity in Postwar New York City

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pp. 21-60

When Armando Boullon walked into a barbershop in Fort Greene, Brooklyn, on February 19, 1958, he expected to spend an ordinary afternoon getting a haircut. He had been to the same barbershop three months earlier and had gotten a haircut from the owner himself, Frank De Bello, an Italian...

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2. We Were Walking on Egg Shells: Puerto Rican and Black Workers’ Political Dissent in the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union

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pp. 61-94

Herbert Hill appeared before the House Committee on Education and Labor in New York City on August 17, 1962, to testify against the leaders of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU). As labor secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored...

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3. From Social Reform to Political Organizing: Building a New Consciousness of Resistance

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pp. 95-130

When Manny Diaz began working as a teenage supervisor at the Union Settlement Association in East Harlem in the fall of 1953, he found himself at an important crossroads in his political life. A decade earlier, he had been manufacturing radios at Motorola Company and working as a shop...

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4. If You Have a Black Numero Uno, Let’s Have a Puerto Rican Numero Dos: Building Puerto Rican and Black Political Power through the War on Poverty

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pp. 131-164

When Gloria Quiñones finished her undergraduate studies at Fordham University in 1965, she was simply looking for a job. The daughter of a garment worker, Quiñones had had a few experiences with community work as an Aspira member and as a participant in a voter registration drive...

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5. From Racial Integration to Community Control: The Struggle for Quality Education

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pp. 165-210

Soon after Evelina Antonetty founded the United Bronx Parents (ubp) in 1966, she realized that she could not change the city’s public school system by simply “cooperating” with administrators from the Board of Education. More confrontational methods were necessary. When UBP activists demanded...

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6. The Breaking of a Coalition: Institutionalizing Power and the Remaking of a Hispanic Identity

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pp. 211-248

Community control leaders forged their movement based on the premise that black and Puerto Rican self-determination could remedy the fundamental inequalities shaping the education of their children. Inspired by the Black Power movement’s tenacious critique of white supremacy as the...

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Epilogue

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pp. 249-256

Black-Latino politics has become an increasingly salient topic since 2003 when Latinos surpassed African Americans as the largest minority group in the United States, and since Obama’s presidency sparked all sorts of hopeful and catastrophic predictions about an America that will soon become...

Notes

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pp. 257-284

Bibliography

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pp. 285-308

Index

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pp. 309-332