Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-x

One day, while I was doing research for this book, my eyes fell upon these lines from Maurice Keen’s classic work on chivalry:

In the crusading context, the military orders—the Temple, the Hospital and the Teutonic and Spanish orders—came to be just that, the strong right arm of the militant church. Their organisation, as reflected in their rules of life, represented a real fusion of ecclesiastical...

Abbreviations

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pp. x-xi

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Introduction: Warrior Monks?

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pp. 1-18

The Iberian military orders’ way of life from the twelfth to the early fourteenth centuries represented the consecration of knighthood to God in accordance with the ideals of the Gregorian Reform and the crusading movement, with the help of practices and norms taken from the monastic tradition. The exercise of arms and its exigencies were always primary in this hybrid way of life and gave prior form to the selection and ordering of the monastic elements....

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1. Foundations

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pp. 19-50

Walter Map, writing in the last decades of the twelfth century, observed, “It is in the period of this century that the Templars, the Hospitallers in Jerusalem, the Knights called of the Sword in Spain, from whom our discourse took its departure earlier, have grown to the zenith of their strength.”2 This remark, made almost offhandedly amid Map’s trenchant commentary on...

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2. Interior Castle: The Orders' Religious Observance

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pp. 51-83

I have argued that the three Iberian orders, despite their various origins, were all instantiations of ecclesiastical knighthood because of the way that the exercise of arms gave prior form to their way of life. If this claim is true, it must be evident in the orders’ internal structure and organization. Blas Casado Quintanilla has called attention to Calatrava’s reluctance to refer to itself as an “order.” Much more common, at least for the first forty...

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3. Ad Extra: The Orders' Mission in the World

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pp. 84-111

The continuator of Lucas of Túy’s Chronicon mundi says that Pelayo Pérez Correa, the famous master of Santiago, was so greatly feared that Muslim parents used his name to stop their children from crying.2 Fighting was indeed the military orders’ principal activity, whereas the care of the sick and the ransoming of captives were significant but subordinate aspects of their mission. A key to understanding...

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4. Brothers in Arms: The Orders' Relations with One Another

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pp. 112-140

When representatives of Santiago, Calatrava, the Temple, and the Hospital gathered in 1224 to establish a pact of mutual cooperation, they stated their reason for doing so in the following terms: “But let it be known that we make this pact so that there might be a bond of greater love between us.”2 In the prevoius chapter, I argued that the organizing principle behind the military...

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Conclusion

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pp. 141-144

By now it is possible to sketch a general picture of ecclesiastical knighthood as instantiated in the Iberian military orders. They owed their existence to the confluence of factors both universal and local: the emergence of crusading and the pursuit of the Reconquest; the foundation and growth of the Temple and the Hospital; the development of Iberian military-religious confraternities; and the desires,...

Notes

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pp. 145-228

Bibliography

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pp. 229-254

Index

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pp. 255-260

Image Plates

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pp. 261-268