Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Fan-Ii—General Principles Governing the Composition of This Work

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pp. ix-x

One: This work adopts the point of view of political science, and employs the methods of history in briefly narrating the general features of political thought through the twenty-five hundred years commencing with the late Chou era. It is intended as a reference work for students in the...

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Author's Foreword

K. G. Hsiao

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pp. xi-xii

It has been said that the greatest compliment a scholar can confer on a writer is to translate his work into another language, making it accessible to a wider circle of readers. F. W. Mote has done me a great honor indeed in rendering my book on Chinese political thought into English. This...

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Translator's Preface

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pp. xiii-xvi

A brief account of how this translation came into existence may not be entirely out of place here. The author's name, of course, was well known to me when, as a graduate student, I at last had the opportunity of meeting him at the University of Washington in 1950. I attended K. C. Hsiao's...

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Notes on the Principles Guiding Translation

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pp. xvii-xx

The translator's intent has been to reproduce the original work, not to produce a new study of the subject taking into account the relevant scholarship now in existence. The author's original footnotes are extensive, and are adequate to sustain the text they accompany. Nevertheless, the...

Part One: The Political Thought of the Feudal World—the Period of Creativity

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Introduction

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pp. 3-27

CHINA'S history is a continuum extending through centuries from a remote past. Its distant origins can be traced back four thousand years or more. [The archaeological evidence of course extends an ever more clearly verifiable indigenous pre-history many millennia back beyond...

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1. The Various Schools of Political Thoughtin the Pre-Ch'in Age

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pp. 28-78

PAST discussions of the thought and learning of the pre-Ch'in age have customarily employed the names "The Hundred Schools"¹ and "The Nine Categories.² In a discussion of political thought, however, only the Confucian, Mohist, Taoist, and Legalist schools are important enough...

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2. Confucius (551-479 B.C.)

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pp. 79-142

THE personal name of Master K'ung, or Confucius, was Ch'iu, and his formal name was Ghung-ni. According to the accounts in ancient works, his ancestor, K'ung Fu-chia, was of the noble rank of kung [usually translated "duke"]* and had served the state of Sung as Ssu-ma, or...

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3. Mencius and Hsiin Tzu

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pp. 143-213

THE Analects records that Confucius' teachings were of four divisions [or subject-classes]* and the Han Fei Tzu states that "the ju learning had divided into eight branches"; the Shih Chi also has said that the Confucian school "had seventy-seven followers who received his instruction and...

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4. Mo Tzu (ca. 490-403 B.C.)

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pp. 214-272

Mo Tzu's surname was Mo, his given name was Ti, and he was a native of the State of Lu.¹ Both his birth and death date are difficult to ascertain. Various scholars have offered quite different conclusions, but the most reliable view seems to be that he was born about the Thirtieth year of...

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5. Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu

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pp. 273-318

OF the great thinkers who appeared during the pre-Chin period, biographical facts are in no other case so difficult to ascertain as are those concerning Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu, and of the two, that is especially so of Lao Tzu. Not merely are the events of his life shrouded in obscurity...

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6. Kuan Tzu

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pp. 319-367

KUAN TZU'S formal name was Yi-wu, and his courtesy name was Chung; he was a native of Ying-shan district in the State of Ch'i.¹ In his youth, poor and of humble status, he became a close friend of a man called Pao Shu [or, Pao Shu-ya].* "Later, Pao Shu served Hsiao-po, a son of the...

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7. Lord Shang and Han Fei Tzu

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pp. 368-424

ADOPTING the sequence in which the schools were established, we have already designated the political thought of the Legalist school the last of the Pre-Ch'in era's four major schools.¹ The book called the Kuan Tzu, without doubt, does not come from the hand of Kuan Chung [even though...

Part Two: The Political Thought of the Authoritarian Empire (One)—the Period of Continuity

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8. Mohists and Legalists in the Ch'inand Han Periods

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pp. 427-468

WHEN the State of Ch'in eliminated the Six States it brought about a profound and unprecedented change in China's political history. Political institutions underwent the change from feudal decentralization to the commandery-county system of unification, while a polity of delegated...

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9. From Chia Yito Chung-ch'ang T'ung

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pp. 469-548

DURING the Han dynasty, Confucian thought gained the position of the orthodox school of thought. This is widely known; it demands no further discussion. Yet were we merely to accept all those time-honored assertions that the Ch'in dynasty extinguished the ancient learning but, that...

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10. From the Lu-shih Ch'un-chiuto Wang Ch'ung's Lun Heng

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pp. 549-601

CONFUCIAN political thought in the Ch'in and Han eras turned from optimism to pessimism; we have described the general outlines of that in the preceding chapter. Taoist thought during that span of time also displays a similar tendency. The pre-Ch'in philosophy based on Lao Tzu...

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11. From Wang Pi to Ko Hung

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pp. 602-670

IN the preceding two chapters, in the course of relating separately the political thought of the Confucian and Taoist Schools of the Ch'in-Han period, we have discovered that both displayed the tendency to turn away from optimism and toward pessimism. In seeking the causes that induced...

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Glossary, Bibliography, and Index: Explanatory Note

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pp. 671-674

The Glossary, Bibliography, and Index are designed to supplement each other in specific ways. The Glossary and Bibliography contain Chinese characters that identify the proper nouns and special terms entered in the Index. All three contain enough supporting information to make correspondences...

Glossary

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pp. 675-702

Bibliography

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pp. 703-714

Index

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pp. 715-779