Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xiv

Many people helped to bring this project to fruition. At the outset, Barry Edwards provided invaluable coding assistance, cleaned existing data sets, and enhanced the efficiency and accuracy of data collection by writing a computer program that automated data collection...

read more

Introduction: A Judiciary in Transition

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-12

An argument frequently advanced by advocates for an inclusive judiciary is that the representation of women and minorities ensures that the federal courts fairly reflect the experiences of a diverse population. According to this view, a diverse judiciary allows historically...

read more

1. Race, Ethnicity, and Judging

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 13-33

In the introduction, we highlighted the varying efforts of Democratic and Republican administration officials to identify qualified minority nominees to fill vacancies on the federal appellate bench. Although presidents garner electoral support among African Americans...

read more

2. Gender and Judging

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 34-54

In this chapter, we explore potential differences in the approaches to judging taken by women and men on the appellate bench. Earlier, we focused on the role of social identity theory and the relevance of group closeness in understanding how race and ethnicity affect...

read more

3. Intersectionality and Judging

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 55-79

As we saw in chapters 1 and 2, characteristics like race and gender can be an important influence on judicial policy making under certain conditions. The evidence from these chapters suggests that personal experiences with differential treatment may lead female and African...

read more

4. Diversity on the Panel

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 80-98

By having three judges decide an appeal together, different perspectives will be brought to bear on the panel as it examines claims of legal error and establishes binding precedent for the circuit. Because federal appellate judges must sit with one another repeatedly over...

read more

5. Diversity Within the Circuits

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 99-126

As the federal judiciary began to experience changes in the kind of individuals appointed to the appellate bench, this transformation was felt differently in each circuit. Some courts, like the Ninth Circuit, saw a relatively rapid influx of nontraditional judges, as presidents...

read more

Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 127-136

Significant changes in the composition of the federal appellate judiciary have occurred since the beginning of President Carter’s administration. Prior to 1977, the courts of appeals were composed entirely of white males, with only six exceptions (two white women and four...

Appendix

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 137-164

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 165-178

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 179-194

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 195-202