Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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CONTENTS

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List of Maps

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p. viii

List of Tables

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p. ix

Acknowledgments

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pp. x-xii

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Introduction: Finding our Mothers, Finding Ourselves

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pp. xiii-xxii

University education transformed womanhood, especially Jewish womanhood, in the twentieth century. At the turn of the century, when Central European universities first allowed women to enter their gates, female students constituted a rare species. ...

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Note of Women's Names

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p. xxiii

Since women’s names often change over the course of their lifetime, it becomes difficult to keep track of individuals. In this book, I have used both birth and married names, as appropriate to the context and stage in their life. ...

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1. Emancipation through Higher Education

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pp. 1-17

University education empowered women, enabling them to live more fulfilling lives and make greater contributions to society. This book chronicles the lives and careers of 460 educated Jewish women in Central Europe, exploring the choices pioneering Jewish university women made while trying to overcome obstacles facing them, both as women and as Jews. ...

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2. Dutiful Daughters, Rebels, and Dreamers: Shaping the Jewish University Woman

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pp. 18-41

Who were these young women who set off on the path to self-emancipation through higher education? How did their home environments shape their Jewish and gender identities, as well as their educational decisions and career choices? ...

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3. University Years: Jewish Women and German Academia

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pp. 42-66

When a young woman began studying at a university, she entered a man’s world for the first time. Fanny Knesbach Stang described her state of mind upon enrolling at the University of Vienna in 1932 at the age of eighteen: ...

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4. Professional Quest and Career Options

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pp. 67-88

Having completed their studies, armed with doctorates and initial state certification, the newly minted Jewish Fr

Image Plates

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pp. 89-107

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5. The Marriage Plot: Career versus Family?

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pp. 108-132

Unlike most middle-class women in early twentieth-century Central Europe whose lives revolved around marriage and family, many career-minded university women decided not to marry or to postpone marriage until later in life. ...

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6. Jews, Feminists, and Socialists: Personal Identity and Political Involvement

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pp. 133-162

Iam [a] Jewish, intellectual, socialist [woman]—a threefold curse! By fate it was destined only that I be born a Jewish woman.”1 With these words, Käte Frankenthal, physician and former Berlin Social Democratic municipal councillor, began her memoir, written in 1940 for the Harvard University essay competition on life in Germany before and after 1933. ...

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7. Interrupted Lives: Persecution and Emigration

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pp. 163-180

Jewish university women began encountering severe discrimination and escalating harassment directed against them both as Jews and as women almost immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933. ...

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8. Reconstructing Lives and Careers

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pp. 181-195

Jewish university women were forced to rebuild their lives and their careers as emigrants to a foreign clime, while struggling to recover from their personal losses. They had to learn the hard way whether or not their university education was portable. ...

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Epilogue: The Legacy

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pp. 196-201

Since at least the 1960s, educated Jewish women around the globe have been following in the footsteps of their Central European predecessors. Like middle-class women everywhere, they have attended universities and graduate schools in ever growing numbers while attempting to combine family and professional careers. ...

Glossary and Abbreviations

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pp. 202-205

Appendix: Tables

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pp. 206-217

Notes

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pp. 218-262

Bibliography

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pp. 263-280

Index [Includes About the Author]

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pp. 281-296