Cover

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Title page, Copyright

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-x

This book has been many years in the making. The first archival research took place back in 2007, but the project was put on the back burner as other more immediate article writing and book editing projects took priority. Four years passed before I was able to give this book anything like my full attention again...

Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xiv

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Introduction: Four Freedoms

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pp. 1-16

On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II. Four days later, after both Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States, the United States became involved in ongoing wars in Asia and Europe. In a fireside chat to the nation, President Franklin Roosevelt...

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1. The Sino-Japanese War and the American Committee for Non-Participation in Japanese Aggression

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pp. 17-35

The outbreak of war between China and Japan in July 1937 initiated a period of global confl ict that ultimately led to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Yet at the time, the impact of the Sino-Japanese War on the American people was limited. The American response to the war was in line with the non-interventionist...

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2. The Coming of War and the American Union for Concerted Peace Efforts

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pp. 36-53

As the American Committee for Non-Participation in Japanese Aggression worked to focus political attention on Asia at the beginning of 1939, it found itself struggling to stay ahead of affairs elsewhere. In the six months between the ACNPJA’s founding and the announcement of its honorary leadership, the political...

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3. The Phony War and the Non-Partisan Committee for Peace through Revision of the Neutrality Law

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pp. 54-72

On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact that all but guaranteed war in Europe. On September 1, Germany invaded Poland, with Britain and France declaring war on Germany two days later. The long-anticipated European war had arrived. Since the final occupation of Czechoslovakia...

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4. Blitzkrieg and the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

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pp. 73-89

The phony war saw the revision of American neutrality legislation, but that was as far as American opinion was willing to move. The relative lack of military activity in the European theater during the winter of 1939–40 left interested Americans wondering which course the war would take. When movement finally came, it...

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5. The Destroyer-Bases Agreement and the Century Group

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pp. 90-109

As early as May 15, 1940, just five days after becoming British prime minister, Winston Churchill appealed to Franklin Roosevelt for assistance in the form of naval destroyers. One month later, faced with the imminent fall of France and the loss of the French, Danish, and Norwegian coastlines to Nazi Germany...

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6. Maximum Aid and the Battle for Lend-Lease

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pp. 110-129

In the aftermath of Franklin Roosevelt’s reelection, many internationalists expected a more active foreign policy in the form of greater aid to Britain. With an unprecedented third term in office ahead, it was hoped that the president’s caution on the campaign trail would be rejected in favor of an initiative to deliver...

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7. Deliver the Goods and Fight for Freedom

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pp. 130-153

The passage of the Lend-Lease Act in March 1941 confirmed that the United States was willing to provide all possible material aid to Britain and any other allies fighting against the fascist aggression of Germany, Italy, and Japan. However, it did not mean the end of debate over the nature of America’s relationship to the...

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8. The Battle of the Atlantic from Barbarossa to Pearl Harbor

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pp. 154-172

In the summer of 1941, the United States slowly moved closer to war in the Atlantic. For many internationalists, the progress was too slow. Having expanded the area of Atlantic patrols in April, President Roosevelt reiterated the need to reduce attacks on shipping in his May 27 fireside chat. However, with the notable exception...

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Epilogue: War and Beyond

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pp. 173-182

The Pearl Harbor attack and subsequent declaration of war from Germany brought an end to the great public debate of the previous two years. The non-interventionist position all but vanished. The America First Committee was quickly dismantled. Critics of Roosevelt’s policies remained, but the nation came...

Notes

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pp. 183-212

Bibliography

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pp. 213-222

Index

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pp. 223-228