Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. 8-11

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Introduction

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pp. 12-21

A familiar theme in the histories written during the colonial period is that the Maghrib has been unfortunate: unfortunate in not having recognized the Roman conquest as a bringer of...

PART I

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1. The Search for Origins

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pp. 24-35

It is well known that the knowledge of history develops in the opposite direction from the course of events; it is the period of Maghribi history most remote from us, the period preceding the first Phoenician...

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2. Colonizer Follows Colonizer

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pp. 36-75

In dealing with the long period that begins at the end of the second millennium B.C. and ends in the seventeenth century of the Christian era, in the course of which Phoenicians...

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3. Conqueror Succeeds Conqueror

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pp. 76-98

With the fifth century and the coming of the Vandals, a period of false regularities and deceptive constancies begins for the Maghrib: secular rhythm, cycle of three generations...

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4. The Winning of Autonomy

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pp. 99-111

The history of the eighth century (700-800/81-184) as recounted in the Arab chronicles is, like that of the two preceding centuries, a history of Berber insurrections. The military conquest had...

PART II

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pp. 112-115

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5. Islam and Commerce:The Ninth Century

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pp. 116-138

The ninth century was a century of Islamization. The process has not been studied in detail, but it seems certain that this Islamization went hand in hand with commerce. The commercial colonies established by...

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6. Eastern Forces for Unity:The Fatimid and Zrrid Ventures

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pp. 139-165

The tenth century (fourth century H.) was the beginning of a period in which the Maghrib participated actively in the history of Islam as a whole. The direct consequence was...

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7. Western Forces for Unity:The Almoravid Venture

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pp. 166-182

While the eastern Maghrib was undergoing a process of fragmentation, the west, which had hitherto been a country of city-states, experienced a unification on the imperial model. We possess little precise information on...

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8. Western Forces for Unity:The Almohad Venture

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pp. 183-209

For a long time historians of the Almohads drew on texts originating many years after the events, many of them the work of authors hostile to the Almohads. Now scholars have begun to publish accounts by...

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9. The Failure of the Imperial Idea

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pp. 210-233

There is no better indication of the importance of the AImohad empire than the fascination it has exerted on all subsequent rulers in the Maghrib. Every one of them tried to take over some part of the heritage...

PART III

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10. The Western Crusade

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pp. 236-251

The two centuries between the death of the Marinid sultan Abu 'Inan and the defeats of the Spaniards at Tunis (1574) and of the Portuguese at El Ksar (1578) are a period of deepseated regression, which...

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11. Two Reactions, Two Powers

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pp. 252-270

From the sixteenth century on, our sources for the history of the Maghrib become more and more abundant. Does this make for greater clarity? With the consolidation of the new...

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12. The Eve of Foreign Intervention

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pp. 271-297

During the eighteenth century the city-states lost much of their autonomy with the falling-off of piracy, which had been their main source of revenue. Especially in the western Maghrib, agricultural production did not increase...

PART IV

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pp. 298-303

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13. Colonial Pressure and Primary Resistance

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pp. 304-335

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, conditions in the Maghrib made it eminently vulnerable to European pressure. Increasing dependency on foreign trade had isolated the state and...

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14. The Triumph of Colonialism

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pp. 336-356

From 1880 until the world crisis of 1929 colonialism triumphed; its only limits were those it imposed on itself in line with the ideology of the "white man's burden" and economy of expenditure...

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15. The Renascent Maghrib

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pp. 357-385

We now know that Maghribi society, cut off from its land and its past, nevertheless found a means of surviving. This knowledge obliges us, not to rewrite the history of the colonial period, but to isolate...

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Conclusion

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pp. 386-397

The colonial era is past. Some defend it ardently or halfheartedly, others castigate it in relevant or irrelevant terms. Some claim that it enriched nature and the individual; others call it a scar on the landscape...

Appendix

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pp. 398-409

Bibliography

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pp. 410-431

Index

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pp. 432-441