Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication, Preface

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Contents

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List of Tables

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pp. xi-xii

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-5

FOR the sociologist interested in social change in a society, one question that must be dealt with is what is changing. Another way of stating this is to ask what exists now in the social organization that did not exist at a previous point in time. As trivial as this question may sound, serious...

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2. The Sociology of Professions

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pp. 6-23

THERE are several different approaches which have been used to study guidance counseling in secondary schools. One approach is based on impressionistic surveys of the goals of counseling and the way in which it is practiced. The data for these studies consist largely of material already written...

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3. The Origins and Growth of Guidance Counseling

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pp. 24-48

LITTLE has been said, thus far, about guidance counseling per se. Our conceptual framework has been established for professional roles in general. From this point we shall be concerned, for the most part, with the counseling profession and, in particular, with those practitioners in secondary...

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4. Characteristics of the Contemporary Counselor

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pp. 49-64

THE previous chapter has dealt with historical and documentary data relevant to the professional collectivity as a whole. From this data we have discerned the main formal standards of the counseling profession and have traced some of the historical antecedents of these standards and...

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5. Educational Counseling and Standardized Testing

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pp. 65-86

IN THE previous chapter we discussed the kinds of counseling activities practiced by counselors in the field. One of these was educational counseling, a direct descendant of the traditional counseling focus on vocational choice. In this chapter we will attempt to explicate the process...

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6. Therapeutic Counseling and Professional Ideologies

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pp. 87-106

MOST of the preceding discussions have focused on the counseling profession at the collectivity level. That is, the collectivity has been the unit of analysis; we have presented its characteristics as a whole, and most of our comparisons have been among different collectivities. In this chapter...

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7. Counseling and the Institutional Setting

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pp. 107-119

LITTLE has been said thus far about the school setting within which counseling operates. For many researchers, the school as an institution might have been the logical starting point for an analysis of the counseling profession. In one recent study of counselors by Aaron Cicourel and John...

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8. The Impact of Counseling

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pp. 120-133

NO CASE STUDY of a profession would be complete without an examination of the impact of the professional on his clientele. So far, we have viewed the counseling profession through the eyes of the counselor or through his own writings. We have gained some insights regarding his...

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Appendix I: On Influence and the Sociology of Professions

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pp. 134-151

IN CHAPTER 2 we presented a definition of professions based on a conception of influence processes. Although an attempt was made to be precise, we did not go into some of the more technical notions in which the concept of influence is grounded. Some of these notions involve theoretical links...

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Appendix II: Sampling and Research Methodology

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pp. 152-163

THIS APPENDIX will discuss three basic aspects of the research design used in the collection of data on the Boston counselors. The research procedures for the USOE study which collected the national counselor data can be found in the James S. Coleman work.ยน The Russell Sage Foundation study...

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Appendix III: Data Collection Instruments

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pp. 164-224

THIS APPENDIX contains only those instruments used in collecting data on the Boston counselor sample and their schools. For the United States Office of Education counselor sample, the questionnaire can be found in James S. Coleman et al., Equality of Educational Opportunity (Washington...

Index

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pp. 225-227