Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures and Tables

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pp. ix-xii

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Introduction: Layers of Language—Some Bad News and Some Good News on Multilingualism, Language Policy, and Education in Africa

Elizabeth C. Zsiga, One Tlale Boyer, Ruth Kramer

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pp. 1-11

The chapters in this volume examine the phenomenon of multilingualism in Africa as it affects individuals, communities, ethnic groups, nations, and the larger interconnected world. The perspectives and case studies presented here cover the whole of the continent, from Morocco to South Africa, from Côte d’Ivoire to Kenya. Some...

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1. Early Reading Success in Africa: The Language Factor

Barbara Trudell, Carolyn Temple Adger

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pp. 12-20

To the casual eye, the two domains of literacy and linguistics may not seem closely linked. In fact, however, concerns about reading and writing competencies do intersect with the field of linguistics, particularly where unwritten or recently written languages are being developed for written use in learning and communication. This situation...

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2. Multilingualism as a Sociolinguistic Phenomenon: Evidence from Africa

Eyamba G. Bokamba

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pp. 21-48

There are 6,909 spoken languages in the world (Ethnologue 2009), but there are only approximately 196 to 200 countries. In spite of the realization in the twenty-first century that societal and individual multilingualism must therefore be common, rather than exotic, phenomena, multilingualism remains grossly understudied and is...

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3. Classroom Discourse in Bilingual and Multilingual Kenyan Primary Schools

Lydiah Kananu Kiramba

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pp. 49-58

Language plays a major role in education. It is a means of communication in the classroom and serves as an expression of identity and power. A need to connect the populations within different countries and around the globe has led to language policies being put in place in order to guide language practices in individual nation-states...

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4. Investigating Teacher Effects in Mother-Tongue-Based Multilingual Education Programs

Stephen L. Walter

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pp. 59-70

Although a large corpus of research has accumulated documenting and investigating the existence of large teacher effects in education, especially in low-income countries (e.g., UNESCO 1998), there remains considerable uncertainty as to the specific nature of this effect. Much of the literature has focused on general issues, such as the...

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5. Ghana’s Complementary Education Program

Kingsley Arkorful

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pp. 71-80

Although the government of Ghana has been investing significantly in formal education, not every child is able to attend a government school. In remote areas schools may not be located near enough for children to reach them safely. Some children may be precluded from attending school in the morning because families need their participation...

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6. Language Contact and Language Attitudes in Two Dagara-Speaking Border Communities in Burkina Faso and Ghana

Richard Beyogle

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pp. 81-91

Dagara is a Gur language spoken in the northwestern corner of Ghana, the southwestern part of Burkina Faso, and the northeastern part of Côte d’Ivoire (Bodomo 1986). An arbitrary division of the Dagara people into three neighboring West African countries is due to European colonization. From 1920 until today, this arbitrary...

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7. Language and Education Policy in Botswana: The Case of Sebirwa

One Tlale Boyer, Elizabeth C. Zsiga

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pp. 92-101

This chapter addresses the status of the Sebirwa language in Botswana in relation to the country’s language and education policy. We begin with an overview of linguistic demographics in Botswana and then turn to the specific situation of Sebirwa, presenting evidence for its marginalized, and indeed endangered, status. We then discuss...

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8. Ethnic Language Shift among the Nao People of Ethiopia

Samson Seid

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pp. 102-109

Ethiopia is the home of more than eighty-five linguistically and ethnically distinct groups, most of which have not been scientifically studied or systematically documented. As is true in every multilingual situation, some Ethiopian languages, such as Amharic and Oromiffa, are highly developed and widespread, but some minority...

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9. The Role of Language and Culture in Ethnic Identity Maintenance: The Case of the Gujarati Community in South Africa

Sheena Shah

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pp. 110-117

This chapter focuses on the importance of the Gujarati language and culture for the ethnic identity development and maintenance of young people living in the Diaspora context of South Africa. Thirty-seven current and former students of a heritage language school in South Africa completed surveys, semistructured interviews, and...

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10. “The Palm Oil with Which Words Are Eaten”: Proverbs from Cameroon’s Endangered Indigenous Languages

Eyovi Njwe

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pp. 118-126

Chinua Achebe, a renowned novelist of African descent, figuratively made reference to the undisputed fact of the relevance of proverbs in language when he said that they were “the palm oil with which words are eaten” (Achebe 1958, 14). The importance of proverbs, especially in spoken language as well as written texts, cannot be overemphasized...

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11. The Linguistic “Glocal” in Nigeria’s Urban Popular Music

Tolulope Odebunmi

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pp. 127-136

The phenomenon of “world beat” has been aptly described as the “Africanization of world pop music and the Americanization of African pop” (Feld 1994, 245). Among other things, it signposts one aspect of the larger flows and interminglings among cultures that are increasingly aware of themselves and of others. Transcultural influences in the...

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12. Language Use in Advertisements as a Reflection of Speakers’ Language Habits

Leonard Muaka

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pp. 137-157

Advertising as a field transcends several disciplines. This chapter contributes to this interdisciplinary field from a sociolinguistic perspective by focusing on billboards that form the linguistic landscape of Kenyan and Tanzanian urban centers. Although the field of linguistic landscapes has made major progress in other parts of the world...

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13. The Persuasive Nature of Metaphors in Kenya’s Political Discourse

Leonard Muaka

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pp. 158-170

The aim of this chapter is to analyze Kenya’s political discourse with an emphasis on the metaphors politicians use. The chapter uses Raila Arnollo Odinga, a controversial and influential figure in Kenyan politics, as the main focal point in a discussion of Kenya’s political discourse. By focusing on Odinga’s political parables in his...

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14. African Languages on Film: Visualizations of Pathologized Polyglossia

Anjali Pandey

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pp. 171-192

This chapter presents generous visual evidence of the extent to which cinematic accounts persist in conflating African polyglossia with pathologized indecipherability, linguistic cacophony, and unintelligibility in twenty-first-century transnational encounters keen on privileging linguistic homogeneity. Such linguistic juxtapositions reflect the astute marketing...

Contributors

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pp. 193-194

Index

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pp. 195-207