Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Tables / Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xx

This book is a detailed history of the Bengali forerunners of Indian modernization. It is an analysis of the lives, the consciousness, and the ideas of early rebels against the Hindu tradition whose community has come to be known as...

Chronology

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pp. xxi-xxiv

Part I. Reformist Modernism

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1. Unitarian Social Gospel and the Foundationsof Hindu Modernism

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pp. 3-41

On September 28, 1833, a funeral sermon was delivered for a Bengali by a prominent British Unitarian in the port city of Bristol on the west coast of England. Rammohun Roy had died a day earlier while...

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2. The Deification of Science,Humanity, and Reason:Brahmo Secularism

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pp. 42-85

If Unitarianism appealed exclusively to the religious-minded liberal reformers, other modern ideas from the West had a wider appeal among nontheistic as well as theistic reformers. In the first place, varieties of Western ideas seemed to flow easily into the port of...

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3. Identity, Achievement, Conscience:The Human Development of theBhadralok Reformer

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pp. 86-128

If the progressive wing of the Bengali intelligentsia responded favorably to such alien intellectual imports as the Unitarian social gospel, humanism, positivism, scientism, and rationalism, it would seem to suggest...

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4. Family, Faction, and the Dilemmas ofPolitical Reform under Colonialism

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pp. 129-154

The rise of a political consciousness, or the "politicization of the Bengal renaissance," is a familiar theme in the historiography of modern Bengal.1 The context is generally seen as the freedom movement, which presumably began in the 1870s when the professional...

Part II. Nationalist Ambivalence

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5. The Confrontation between TrinitarianChristianity and Reformed Hinduism

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pp. 157-175

If liberal Brahmos looked upon Unitarianism as a positive force that they freely accepted and adapted as a religion, ethic, and social gospel, they responded negatively to Trinitarianism, which they distrusted as alien...

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6. The Issue of Brahmo National Identity andthe Rise of Cultural Nationalism

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pp. 176-186

If Macaulayism stimulated the rise of protonationalism in the formation of the Dharma Sabha, and the missionaries provoked the Brahmo Samaj into a reconstruction of Hinduism along national lines, the crisis of national identity within Brahmo ranks in the...

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7. The Frustration of the Bhadralokand the Making of a Revolutionary Nationalist:The West Desanctified

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pp. 187-214

It should by now be apparent that the image of the West among the bhadralok intelligentsia differed appreciably between those favorably disposed to progressive values and those sensitive to blatant forms of ethnocentricism. Liberals defended the right to apply modern...

Part III. Synthesis

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8. Western-Inspired Brahmo Evangelism andthe Vaishnav Spirit in the Mofussil

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pp. 217-248

On the basis of the biographies of Brahmo leaders thus far presented, one might well conclude that Hindu reformers were virtually all members of the Westerneducated intelligentsia. Whether nationalist or universalist, conservative or liberal, they shared a common...

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9. World Crisis and the Quest for an Ideology ofSalvation: Keshub, Prophet of Harmony

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pp. 249-286

The name of Keshub Chandra Sen has appeared in almost every chapter of this book. He has appeared as Unitarian Christian, scientist of religion, liberal social reformer, universalist, and one of the earliest...

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10. Rabindranath Tagore as Reformer:Hindu Brahmoism andUniversal Humanism

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pp. 287-310

Of all the Brahmos, the one who most captured the imagination of people throughout the world was Rabindranath Tagore. He became famous as the first Asian winner of the Nobel Prize in 1913, and as the founder of an international university at...

Part IV. Conclusion

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11. The Brahmo Reformation Diffused: Bengal's Legacy to Twentieth-Century India

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pp. 313-334

One of the chief conclusions of this book is that modern Bengali bhadralok culture was shaped largely in the image of the Brahmo Samaj. No middle-class Bengali Hindu today would deny that much of what...

Notes

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pp. 335-356

Bibliography

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pp. 357-386

Index

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pp. 387-400