Cover

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Contents

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p. v

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Acknowledgments

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p. vii

The essays in this volume were produced for a conference held at the Center for 21st Century Studies at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee in October 2005 and titled “The Art of the State: Sovereignty Past and Present.” Our conference was a provisional effort to understand how and under what circumstances states become sovereign. ...

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1 Introduction: Sovereignty and the Study of States

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pp. 1-18

As the chapters in this volume demonstrate, sovereignty does not accrue naturally to a state. Taken together, these essays argue that sovereignty is a set of practices that are historically contingent—a mix of both international and intra-national processes, including self-determination, international law, and ideas about natural right. ...

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2. Sovereignty on the Isthmus: Federalism, U.S. Empire, and the Struggle for Panama during the California Gold Rush

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pp. 19-34

The ideal of an exclusive one- to-one correspondence between territory and state power, or the concept of “Westphalian sovereignty,” has long informed nationalist and anti-imperialist thought in Latin America. In twentieth-century Panama, as in other nations in the region, nationalists have based their critiques of foreign intervention ...

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3. The Foreign and the Sovereign: Extraterritoriality in East Asia

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pp. 35-55

The great powers of the West created the regime of extraterritoriality for East Asia in the nineteenth century as a solution to two problems. First, the great powers intended to secure equality and fairness for their own respective citizens when they sojourned in the non-Christian lands of China and Japan. ...

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4. Wilsonian Sovereignty in the Middle East: The King-Crane Commission Report of 1919

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pp. 56-74

World War I began in 1914 as a conflict among Europeans, a confrontation familiar in kind if not in degree to previous European wars. But it concluded, or at least ceased in certain European theaters, in American president Woodrow Wilson’s attempt to make “world peace” through the reconfiguration of sovereignty on a global scale. ...

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5. Colonial Sovereignty in Manchuria and Manchukuo

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pp. 75-93

On September 18, 1931, the Japanese Kwantung Army staged a bombing on the Japanese-owned South Manchuria Railway (SMR) at Shenyang. Claiming local Chinese military were responsible, the Kwantung Army attacked them, and over the next several months, using this growing “Manchurian Incident” and breakdown of order ...

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6. Alternatives to Empire: France and Africa after World War II

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pp. 94-123

With hindsight, the end of colonial empires and the development of a world of nation-states after World War II seems inevitable. However, to look backward from the end of a two-decade-long process of decolonization is to miss the uncertainty and contingency of that process, especially all the alternative possibilities that were at one time open. ...

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7. The Ambiguities of Sovereignty: The United States and the Global Human Rights Cases of the 1940s and 1950s

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pp. 124-147

In the celebrated 2003 Lawrence v. Texas case through which the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the anti-sodomy provisions of Texas state law, Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy’s majority opinion drew sustained attention to a decision of the European Court for Human Rights in 1981, Dungeon v. UK, in which the court found prohibitions ...

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8. What Does It Take to Be a State? Sovereignty and Sanctions in Rhodesia, 1965–1980

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pp. 148-168

Rhodesia, in all its names, was never really a colony, nor was it ever really a legitimately independent state. Yet for most of the period from 1923 to 1965 it could govern its own population; after declaring itself independent in 1965, it could control its borders, have some kind of external affairs, and make its own decisions about its own future: ...

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9. Legal Fictions after Empire

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pp. 169-195

We think it is time for real reconsideration of the nation-state and self-determination. The legal fiction of the nation-state has had very real consequences. Legal fictions always have real consequences. But this essay is about unintended consequences of the twentieth-century effort to refashion the world ...

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10. Sovereignty after Socialism at Europe’s New Borders

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pp. 196-221

In the summer of 1991 the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia came apart. The Republics of Slovenia and Croatia seceded, and their territorial forces confronted the Yugoslav National Army’s attempts to restore central governmental control. While wrangling continued between representatives of the different republics ...

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11. Environmental Security, Spatial Preservation, and State Sovereignty in Central Africa

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pp. 222-242

This essay explores how the creation and utilization of national parks have been connected to the evolution of state sovereignty in the African Great Lakes region, specifically Uganda, Rwanda, and the Congo (DRC). The national parks offer a useful vantage point from which to examine the process of state making ...

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12. The Paradox of Sovereignty in the Balkans

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pp. 243-260

Writing about the “buffer states” of the Balkan Peninsula at the turn of the nineteenth century, William Eleroy Curtis, correspondent of the Chicago-Record Herald and a seasoned world traveler, used the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia as the “remarkable example of administration” over an alien race.1 ...

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13. The Secret Lives of the “Sovereign”: Rethinking Sovereignty as International Morality

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pp. 261-276

As we enter the twenty- first century, theorists have increasingly focused on problems associated with sovereignty. Indeed, since the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, international morality and jurisprudence do not admit sovereign derogation or immunities for crimes of war, crimes against humanity, and genocide, which may include ethnic cleansing. ...

List of Contributors

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pp. 277-280

Index

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pp. 277-284