In this Book

Codes of Conduct
summary

Despite ongoing efforts to maintain ethical standards, highly publicized episodes of corporate misconduct occur with disturbing frequency. Firms produce defective products, release toxic substances into the environment, or permit dangerous conditions to existin their workplaces. The propensity for irresponsible acts is not confined to rogue companies, but crops up in even the most respectable firms. Codes of Conduct is the first comprehensive attempt to understand these problems by applying the principles of modern behavioral science to the study of organizational behavior.

Codes of Conduct probes the psychological and social processes through which companies and their managers respond to a wide array of ethical dilemmas, from risk and safety management to the treatment of employees. The contributors employ a wide range of case studies to illustrate the effects of social influence and group persuasion, organizational authority and communication, fragmented responsibility, and the process of rationalization. John Darley investigates how unethical acts are unintentionally assembled within organizations as a result of cascading pressures and social processes. Essays by Roderick Kramer and David Messick and by George Loewenstein focus on irrational decision making among managers. Willem Wagenaar examines how worker safety is endangered by management decisions that focus too narrowly on cost cutting and short time horizons. Essays by Baruch Fischhoff and by Robyn Dawes review the role of the expert in assessing environmental risk.

Robert Bies reviews evidence that employees are more willing to provide personal information and to accept affirmative action programs if they are consulted on the intended procedures and goals. Stephanie Goodwin and Susan Fiske discuss how employees can be educated to base office judgments on personal qualities rather than on generalizations of gender, race, and ethnicity. Codes of Conduct makes an important scientific contribution to the understanding of decisionmaking and social processes in business, and offers clear insights into the design of effective policies to improve ethical conduct.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
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  1. Title page, Copyright
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. v-vii
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  1. Contributors
  2. p. viii
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  1. Preface
  2. p. ix
  1. Introduction. Behavioral Research into Business Ethics
  2. David M. Messick, Ann E. Tenbrunsel
  3. pp. 1-10
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  1. Part I. Social and Organizational Processes
  2. pp. 11-12
  1. Chapter 1. How Organizations Socialize Individuals into Evildoing
  2. John M. Darley
  3. pp. 13-43
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  1. Chapter 2. Social Influence and the Triple Tumor Structure of Organizational Dishonesty
  2. Robert B. Cialdini
  3. pp. 44-58
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  1. Chapter 3. Ethical Cognition and the Framing of Organizational Dilemmas: Decision Makers as Intuitive Lawyers
  2. Roderick M. Kramer, David M. Messick
  3. pp. 59-85
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  1. Chapter 4. Can Socially Responsible Firms Survive in a Competitive Environment?
  2. Robert H. Frank
  3. pp. 86-103
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  1. Chapter 5. Beyond the Hidden Self: Psychological and Ethical Aspects of Privacy in Organizations
  2. Robert J. Bies
  3. pp. 104-116
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  1. Chapter 6. Judge Not, Lest... : The Ethics of Power Holders' Decision Making and Standards for Social Judgment
  2. Stephanie A. Goodwin, Susan T. Fiske
  3. pp. 117-142
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  1. Chapter 7. Social Categories and Decision Making: How Much Differentiation Do We Need?
  2. Myron Rothbart, Robert Mauro
  3. pp. 143-159
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  1. Chapter 8. In-Group Favoritism: The Subtle Side of Intergroup Discrimination
  2. Marilynn B. Brewer
  3. pp. 160-170
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  1. Chapter 9. Managing Work Force Diversity: Ethical Concerns and Intergroup Relations
  2. Tom R. Tyler, Maura A. Belliveau
  3. pp. 171-186
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  1. Commentary. The Business Ethics of Social and Organizational Processes
  2. Thomas Donaldson
  3. pp. 187-194
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  1. Part II. Risk, Reasoning, and Decision Making
  2. pp. 195-196
  1. Chapter 10. Do No Harm
  2. Jonathan Baron
  3. pp. 197-213
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  1. Chapter 11. Behavioral Decision Theory and Business Ethics: Skewed Trade-Offs Between Self and Other
  2. George Loewenstein
  3. pp. 214-227
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  1. Chapter 12. Responsibility Judgments and the Causal Background
  2. Ann L. McGill
  3. pp. 228-242
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  1. Chapter 13. Ethics as Hypothesis Testing, and Vice Versa
  2. Joshua Klayman
  3. pp. 243-255
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  1. Chapter 14. Environmental Degradation: Exploring the Rift Between Environmentally Benign Attitudes and Environmentally Destructive Behaviors
  2. Max H. Bazerman, Kimberly A. Wade-Benzoni, Franciso J. Benzoni
  3. pp. 256-274
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  1. Chapter 15. The "Public" Versus the "Experts": Perceived Versus Actual Disagreements about Risks
  2. Baruch Fischhoff
  3. pp. 275-288
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  1. Chapter 16. Incremental Validity, Expertise, and Ethics
  2. Robyn M. Dawes
  3. pp. 289-299
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  1. Chapter 17. Ethical Dilemmas in Risk Communication
  2. Helmut Jungermann
  3. pp. 300-317
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  1. Chapter 18. The Ethics of Not Spending Money on Saftey
  2. Willem A. Wagenarr
  3. pp. 318-327
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  1. Commentary. The Business Ethics of Risk, Reasoning, and Decision Making
  2. Patricia H. Werhane
  3. pp. 328-341
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  1. Summary. The Psychology of Business Ethics
  2. Russell Hardin
  3. pp. 342-361
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  1. References
  2. pp. 362-394
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 395-409
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